The Ninth Crusade

The Ninth Crusade is generally regarded to be the end of the medieval Crusades versus the Muslims in the holy place Land.

Prince Edward of England had got in Tunis very late to add to St. Louis of France's 8th Crusade, but along with Charles of Anjou he carried on to Acre, capital of the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They went far in 1271, even as the Mamluk sultan Baibars was unsuccessfully beleaguering Tripoli, the last left dominion of the County of Tripoli. Originally, in 1268, Baibars had besides captured the Antioch, the last remainder of the princedom of Antioch.

Baibars too built the first Mamluk naval forces and assayed to land on Cyprus in 1271, absorbing Hugh III of Cyprus (the nominative king of Jerusalem) away of Acre, but the fleet was demolished during the Ninth Crusade. Edward did brief demur mediate between Hugh and his unenthusiastic horse men from the Ibelin family of Cyprus, and manage an eleven-year armistice with Baibars, whilst Baibars first tried to assassinate him by directing men affecting to seek baptism as Christians. Edward brought back home in 1272 as his father Henry III died.

Edward had been attended by Theobald Visconti, who got Pope Gregory X in 1271. Gregory asked a new ninth crusade, particularly at the Council of Lyons in 1274, but aught came of this. Charles, however, took vantage of a altercate between Hugh III, the Knights Templar, and the Venetians so to bestow Acre states below his command. He bribed Maria of Antioch's arrogates to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and aggressed Hugh III, who as well arrogated the kingdom. In 1277 Hugh of San Severino becharmed Acre for Charles.

Venice so advised a ninth crusade be addressed versus Constantinople, wherever Michael VIII had recently re-built the Byzantine Empire. In 1281 Pope Martin IV afforded permit for this; the French acquired the land road concluded Durazzo, whilst the Venetians took the sea route. However, after the Sicilian Vespers on March 31, 1282, incited by Michael VIII, Charles was pulled to come back home.

This was the last military expedition attempted against the Byzantines or the Muslims in the east. By 1291 the Mameluks had captivated the close of the Crusader dominions.

* Speech of pope Urban II at Clermont 1095
* RHC, The Recueil des historiens des croisades
* Zimmern Chronicle or Zimmerische Chronik
* Saladin
* Richard Lion Heart