Urban II Biography

Urban II (Otho of Lagery) (or Otto or Odo) who died in 29 July, 1099, pope from year1088 to year 1099, was born of knightly family, at Lagery in France and was learned for the church. He had already got archdeacon of Reims when, under the determine of Saint Bruno, his teacher, he released his preferment and figured the cloister at Cluny, where he raised to be prior. In 1078, Gregory VII cited him to Italy, and employed him cardinal-bishop of Ostia.

He was one of the most marked and active champions of the Gregorian reforms, particularly as legate in Germany in 1084, and was among the few whom Gregory made as possible successors. Desiderius, abbot of Monte Cassino, who got the name Victor III, was selected in the first instance to the hard post, but after his close reign Odo was elected by acclamation (March 1088) at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina. He honestly took up the insurance or the policy of his great precursor, but while pursuing it with capable conclusion showed greater tractableness and diplomatic finesse. At the start he had to reckon with the front of the powerful antipope Clement III in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods enclosed Rome, Amalfi, Benevento, and Troia endured him in renewed declarations against simony, place investiture, and clerical marriages, and a continued opponent to Henry IV the Holy Roman Emperor.

In accord with this last policy, the marriage of the countess Matilda of Tuscany with Guelph of Bavaria was raised, Prince Conrad was helped in his rising against his father and topped King of the Romans at Milan in 1093, and the empress (Adelaide or Praxedes) delighted in her complaints against her husband. In a extended struggle also with Philippe I of France, whom he had cursed, Urban II finally established victorious. But the most marked feature in his papacy, a feature so which marks an era in the history of Latin Christianity, is his association with the first crusade.

The crusading movement got shape at the Council of Piacenza, where in March from year 1095 Urban received an embassy from Alexius I Comnenus, the Byzantine emperor, asking help against the Muslims army, and where a great council seen, attended by many Italian, Burgundian, and French bishops and by so huge a concourse of monks and laypeople that the public meetings had to be held in the wide air outside the city. The yet more enthusiastic Council of Clermont was held in November of the very year.

Pope Urban II died on July from year 1099, about fourteen days after the drop of Jerusalem to the Crusaders, but ahead news of the event had received in Italy; Pope Paschal II was his successor in Rome.

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Medieval Castle Chapels

The chapel was an important part of any medieval castle and was utilized every morning for mass. It would, typically , be approximately the hall and the bed chamber. Later castles would frequently have the chapel placed to the castle keep, bailey or yet the gatehouse.

It was rather common for the castle chapel to be attended by a crypt.

Another contemporary affiliation with the castle chapel would be a priest trap. Religious tolerance was not very public and if the Lord of the castle precious against the wishes of his Powerful then he would need somewhere to obscure his priest as well as any sacred ornamentations and bibles. Many priest holes were established as an offshoot from the chimney or beyond panelling. Tragically a priest could die of famishment whilst the (pursuivants) or priest hunters directed exhaustive searches for them. There are many castles nowadays still with their priest trap in tact and sometimes on display to visitors. Whenever people view a priest hole they are usually stuck at the hampered space and can readily imagine how hard it must have been to obscure there for long.

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