Albert of Aix Biography

Albert of Aix (fl. c. AD 1100), one of the first crusade historian, was born during the later part of the ten century, and afterwards became canyon and custos of the Christian church of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Nothing else is recognized of his life except that he was the writer of a Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis, or Chronicon Hierosolymilanum de betto sacro, a history in 12 books, recorded between 1125 and 1150. This history starts at the time of the council of Clermont, covers the fortunes of the first crusade and the early history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and finishes somewhat abruptly in 1121.

It was better known during the middle ages, and was mostly used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historia. In modern times its historical rate has been severely impugned, but the finding of fact of the best scholarship seems to be that in common it forms a true record of the issues of the first crusade, although containing some identified matter. Albert never seen the Holy Land, but he appears to have had a significant amount of intercourse with returned crusaders, and to have had admission to valuable correspondence. The first version of the history was published at Helmstadt in 1584, and a good edition is in the (RHC) Recueil des historiens des croisades, tome iv. (France-Paris, 1841).

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* William of Tyre (The Greatest crusade historians)
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RHC, The Recueil des historiens des croisades
RHGF, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France
Zimmern Chronicle or Zimmerische Chronik
Richard Lion Heart

List of Medieval Historians and Chroniclers

* Albert of Aix historian of the first crusade

* Michael Psellus (1018 – c. 1078)

* Sima Guang (1019 – 1086)

* Marianus Scotus (1028 – 1082/1083)

* Guibert of Nogent (1053 – 1124)

* Galbert of Bruges 12th century

* Florence of Worcester (died 1118)

* Eadmer (c. 1066 – c. 1124)

* Kim Bu-sik (1075 – 1151)

* Symeon of Durham (died after 1129)

* William of Malmesbury (c. 1080 – c. 1143)

* Anna Comnena (1083 – after 1148)

* Dietrich of Nieheim (c. 1345 – 1418)

* Seán Mór Ó Dubhagáin d. 1372Adhamh Ó Cianáin, d. 1373John of Fordun

* Usamah ibn Munqidh (1095 – 1188)

* Ruaidhri Ó Cianáin (died 1387)

* Giolla Íosa Mór Mac Fhirbhisigh fl. 1390-1418Alphonsus A Sancta Maria (1396 – 1456)

* Shen Yue (441-513)

* Procopius (c. 500 - c. 565)

* John Malalas (c. 491 - 578)

* Jordanes (6th century)

* Gregory of Tours (538 – 594)

* Adamnan (625 - 704)

* Bede (c. 672 – 735)

* Jan Długosz Polish historian and chroniclerPhilippe de Commines

* John Capgrave (1393 – 1464)

* Christine de Pizan (c. 1365 – c. 1430)

* Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa (1439-1498)

* Robert Fabyan (died 1513)

* Albert Krantz (1450 – 1517)

* Polydore Vergil (c. 1470 – 1555)

* Sigismund von Herberstein (1486 – 1566)

* João de Barros (1496 – 1570)

* Paolo Paruta (1540 – 1598)

* Raphael Holinshed (died c. 1580)

* Hector Boece Scottish philosopher and historian

* Caesar Baronius (1538 – 1607)

* Abd alQadir Bada'uni (1540 – 1615)

* Abd alAziz alFishtali (1549-1621)

* Ahmad Ibn alQadi (1553-1616)

* John Hayward (1564 – 1627)

* Pilip Ballach Ó Duibhgeannáin (fl. 1579–1590)

* William Bradford (1590 – 1657)

* Adam of Bremen

* Kalhana historian of Kashmir

* Saxo Grammaticus (12th century)

* Svend Aagesen (12th century)

* Alured of Beverley (12th century)

* Helmold of Bosau (ca. 1120 – after 1177)

* William of Tyre (c. 1128 – 1186)

* William of Newburgh (1135 – 1198)

* Mohammed alBaydhaq (fl. 1150)

* John of Worcester (fl. 1150s)

* Giraldus Cambrensis (c. 1146 – c. 1223)

* Wincenty Kadlubek (1161 – 1223)

* Ambroise (fl. 1190s)

* Geoffroi de Villehardouin (c. 1160 – 1212)

* Nicetas Choniates (died c. 1220)

* Snorri Sturluson (c. 1178 – 23rd Sept.1241)

* Abdelwahid alMarrakushi (born 1185)

* Ata alMulk Juvayni (1226-83)

* Ibn alKhabbaza (-1239)

* Matthew Paris (died 1259)

* Il-yeon (1206 – 1289)

* Salimbene di Adam (1221 – c. 1290)

* Abdelaziz alMalzuzi (-1298)

* Templar of Tyre (c. 1230 – 1314)

* Jean de Joinville (1224 – 1319)

* Rashid alDin Hamadani (1247 – 1317)

* Ibn Khaldun (1332 – 1406)

* Piers Langtoft (died c. 1307)

* Ibn Abi Zar (fl. 1315)

* Abdullah Wassaf 13th century

* Ibn Idhari (beginning 14th century)

* John Clyn (fl. 1333-1349)

* Jean Froissart (c. 1337 – c. 1405)

* Regino of Prüm (died 915)

* Muhammad al-Tabari (838 – 923)

* Liutprand of Cremona (922 – 972)

* Li Fang (925 – 996)

* Heriger of Lobbes (925-1007)

* Albiruni (973 – 1048)

* Geoffrey of Monmouth

* Thietmar of Merseburg

* Nestor the Chronicler

* Gallus Anonymus

* Tírechán (fl. c. 655)

* Muirchu moccu Machtheni (7th century)

* Paul the Deacon (8th century)

* Nennius (9th century)

* Martianus Hiberniensis (819-875)

* Einhard (9th century)

* Notker of St Gall (9th century)

* Ibn Rustah (10th century)

* Asser Bishop of Sherborne (died 908/909)

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Medieval Cavalry
Medieval Catapults
Medieval Customs
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Medieval Cures
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Medieval Clothing
Medieval Food
Medieval Desserts
Medieval Oaths
Medieval Satan

Constantine I Early Life

Bronze statue of Emperor Constantine I outside York Minster in England, near where he was heralded Emperor in 306.

Constantine was born at the city of Naissus,(today in Serbia) in Upper Moesia, to Constantius I Chlorus and his wife Flavia Iulia Helena, an innkeeper's daughter who at the time was an small of only 16 years. His father separated from his mother in 292 and marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora (daughter of Maximian the Western Roman Emperor). Theodora would give birth to 6 half-siblings of Constantine, taking on Julius Constantius.

Colossal head of Constantine

Young Constantine worked in Nicomedia at the court of Diocletian, after the engagement of his father as one of the 2 caesares (junior emperors) of the Tetrarchy about 293. Around 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius followed to the place. Even So, Constantius dropped sick during an campaign against the Scots and Picts of Caledonia, and died out on July 25, 306. Constantine overseen to be at his fatal sick in Eboracum (modern York Great Britain, where the loyal common Crocus, of Alamannic origin, and the soldieries loyal to his father's storage declared him an Augustus (Emperor). For the following 18 years, he struggled in a series of great battles and wars of integration that first got him co-rule with the Eastern Roman Emperor, and then eventually leadership of a reunited Roman Empire.

Recent Posts:

- Justinian Dynasty (518-602)

- Emperor Justin (518-527)

- Emperor Justinian (527-565)

- Theodora (Wife of Justinian)

Theodora (Wife of Justinian)

The better source for information on Theodora is Procopius, who recorded his history about her in 3 works: his History of the Warfares of Justinian, De Aedificiis, and Anekdota or (Secret History). All three were recorded after Theodora's dying. The first one mentions Theodora with the crushing of the Nika revolt, through her courageous reaction, and perhaps therefore with Justinian's continued reign. De Aedificiis is insinuating to Theodora. But the Secret History is quite serious about Theodora, peculiarly her early life.

According to Procopius history, Theodora's father was the bear and animal custodian at the Hippodrome, and her mother, afterward her husband died, started out Theodora's playing career, which grown into a life as a prostitute and schoolmarm of Hecebolus, whom she soon departed. She became a Monophysite, and, still engaged as an actress, or as a wool-spinner, she came to the care of Justinian, nephew and successor of the emperor Justin. Justin's wife may as well have been a prostitute; she adjusted her name to Euphemia upon getting empress. Theodora firstly became the mistress of Justinian; then Justin held his heir's attraction to Theodora by changing the law that prevent a patrician from marrying an actress. That there is an individual copy of this law being changed adds weight to leastwise the general scheme of Procopius' account of Theodora's lowly origins.

Whatsoever her roots, Theodora had the honor of her new husband. In 532 and when two factions (known as the Greens and the Blues) endangered to end Justinian's rule, she is accredited with getting Justinian and his generals and officials to remain in the city and take powerful action to suppress the rising.

Through her family relationship with her husband, who appears to have treated her as his intellectual collaborator, Theodora had a serious effect on the political conclusions of the empire. Justinian writes, for example, that he consulted Theodora when he promulgated a organization which included rectifies meant to end corruption by semipublic officials. She is credited with working many other reforms, taking on some which expanded the rights of women in divorce and holding ownership, prevent exposure of undesirable infants, gave mothers some care rights over their children, and prohibit the killing of a wife who involved adultery. She limited brothels and made convents where the ex-prostitutes could sustain themselves.

Theodora stayed a monophysite Christian, and her husband persisted an orthodox Christian. Some reviewers -- including Procopius say that their differences were more a simulation than a reality, presumably to hold the church from having overly much power. She was identified as a protector of members of the Monophysite faction when they were charged of heresy. She endured the moderate Monophysite Severus and, when he was cursed and exiled, with Justinian's blessing -- Theodorus aided him to settle in Egypt. Another excommunicated Monophysite, Anthimus, was settled hiding in the women's draws when Theodora died, 12 years after the excommunication ordain. She sometimes explicitly processed against her husband's hold of Chalcedonian Christianity in the ongoing conflict for the predominance of every faction, especially at the borders of the empire.

In 548 Theodora died, likely of cancer. At the close of his life, Constantine, too, convinced to Monophysitism.

Although Theodora had a daughter when she joined Justinian, they had no kids together. She married her niece to Justinian's successor, Justin II.

Recent Posts:

- List of Byzantine Dynasties

- Dynasty of Theodosius (364-457)

- Dynasty of Leo (457-518)

- List of Patriarchs of Constantinople

- Justinian Dynasty (518-602)

- Emperor Justin (518-527)

- Emperor Justinian (527-565)

Emperor Justinian (527-565)

The emperor Justinian or Justinian I reigned the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565. He is significant for his affairs to retrieve the lost provinces of the barbarians hands in the Western Roman Empire, his Codification of Roman Law, and his architectural accomplishments.

Map of Byzantine empire in the sixth century

Justinian was born circa 482 in Pauresium, Illyricum believably south of modern Niإ،s, Serbia). Justinian revived the throne with the aim of reestablishing the Roman Empire as it had been before the states of the Western Roman Empire drop under the hands of varying Germanic tribes through the fifth century. To this closing, he sent his regular armies against the Vandals in North Africa (approximately, Algeria and Tunisia today), the Ostrogoths in Italy and the Visigoths in Spain. The Vandals ceded in 534, but the Visigoths and Ostrogoths proved more tight. Justinian's armies never succeeded in conquering more than a small region of Spain and subdued Italy only after a wasting war that finished in 563 with Italy in destroys. However, when Justinian died, he could demand with some justice that the Mediterranean Sea was one time again a Roman lake.

Justinian's conquests established ephemeral, even so. Within 4 years of his death, northern Italy had down under the Lombards, (Germanic tribe), and by the early eighth century, Muslim soldiers had conquered North Africa and followed by Spain.

Justinian's accomplishments in law were more extended. Although different collections of imperial Roman legislation had been composed in the past, by Justinian's age even the most recent, the Codex Theodosianus which had been supplied in 438, was outdated. Consequently in 528 Justinian made a commission of ten experts, including Tribonian, to ready a new version, which was accomplished in 534. The Code (Codex), as it was named, contains 4,562 laws from the age of Hadrian (117138) to 534.

Roman law, even so, covers both legislation and Jurisprudence; that is, literature reading the law. Despite the importance of law, no individual collection had ever been established, and some essential works were not promptly available. So in 530 Justinian ordered his commission to gather the most important written materials on jurisprudence and to edit and elucidate the texts whenever required. To complete their undertaking, the commission had to read 2 thousand books containing over 3 million lines, but nevertheless they complete the compilation famous as the Digest (Digestum), or Pandects (Pandectae), by about December 533.

In the very year, the commissioners published the Institutes (Institutiones), a handbook for law pupils. Although Justinian had only projected a tripartite digest of Roman law, imperial legislation did not finish with the culmination of the Code in 534. Consequently the edicts issued by Justinian afterward 534 were gathered and came to be famous as the Novels (Novellae), or (New Laws). The Code, Digest, and Institutes had been wrote in Latin, the conventional language of Rome, but Justinian supplied the Novels in Greek in identification of the fact that Greek was the general language of the Eastern Roman Empire. Together the Code - Digest - Institutes, and Novels came to be identified as the Corpus juris civilis or [the corpus of civil law]. The Corpus juris not only maintained Roman law for later contemporaries but, after the twelfth century when it came to be notable and studied in western Europe, offered inspiration for most European legal systems.

Justinian is as well known for the wide building program that he undertaken both in the East and in Italy. The church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople which was accomplished in 562, is regarded one of the finest instances of Byzantine architecture. Emperor Justinian died November 14, 565, in Constantinople, nowadays Istanbul.

Previous Posts:

- Justinian Dynasty (518-602)
- Dynasty of Theodosius (364-457)
- Dynasty of Leo (457-518)
- Emperor Justin (518-527)

List of Patriarchs of Constantinople 315-1462

The rise of the see of Constantinople, the Great Church of Christ/ is the most curious development in the history of Eastern Christendom. For many centuries the patriarchs of New Rome have been the first bishops in the East. Though they never succeeded in the claim to universal jurisdiction over the whole Orthodox Church that they have at various times advanced, though, during the last century especially, the limits of their once enormous patriarchate have been ruthlessly driven back, nevertheless since the fifth century and still at the present time the Patriarch of New Rome fills a place in the great Christian body whose importance makes it second only to that of the Pope of Old Rome.

To be an orthodox Christian one must accept the orthodox faith. That is the first criterion. And then as a second and visible bond of union all Greeks at any rate, and probably most Arabs and Slavs, would add that one must be in communion with the ecumenical patriarch. The Bulgars are entirely orthodox in faith, but are excommunicate from the see of Constantinople; a rather less acute form of the same state was until lately the misfortune of the Church of Antioch. And the great number of orthodox Christians would deny a share in their name to Bulgars and Antiochenes for this reason only.

Since, then, these patriarchs are now and have so long been the centre of unity to the hundred millions of Christians who make up the great Orthodox Church, one might be tempted to think that their position is an essential element of its constitution, and to imagine that, since the days of the first general councils New Rome has been as much the leading Church of the East as Old Rome of the West. One might be tempted to conceive the Orthodox as the subjects of the ecumenical patriarch, just as Roman Catholics are the subjects of the pope This would be a mistake. The advance of the see of Constantinople is the latest development in the history of the hierarchy.

The Byzantine patriarch is the youngest of the five. His see evolved from the smallest of local dioceses at the end of the fourth and during the fifth centuries. And now his jurisdiction, that at one time grew into something like that of his old rival the pope, has steadily retreated till he finds himself back not very far from the point at which his predecessors began their career of gradual advance. And the overwhelming majority of the Orthodox, although they still insist on communion with him, indignantly deny that he has any rights over them.

Though they still give him a place of honour as the first bishop of their Church, the other orthodox patriarchs and still more the synods of national churches show a steadily growing jealousy of his assumption and a defiant insistence on their equality with him. An out line of the story of what may perhaps be called the rise and fall of the see of Constantinople will form the natural introduction to the list of its bishops.

The List:

Name Date

Metrophanes 315-327

Alexander 327-340

Paul I 340-341

Eusebios 341-342

Paul I (again) 342-344

Macedonias I 342-348

Paul I (again) 348-350

Macedonias I (again) 350-360

Eudokios 360-369

Demophilus 369-379

Evagrios 369-370

Gregory I 379-381

Maximos 381

Nectarius 381-397

John I Chrysostom 398-404

Arsacius 404-405

Attikos 405

Sisinnios I 426-427

Nestorius 428-431

Maximianos 431-434

Proclus 434-447

Phlabianos 447-449

Anatolius 449-458

Gennadios I 458-471

Acacius 471-489

Phrabitas 489-490

Euphemius 490-496

Macedonias II 496-511

Timothy I 511-518

John II Cappodocus 518-520

Epiphanius 520-536

Anthinos I 536

Menas 536-552

Eutychius 552-565

John III Antiochius 565-577

Eutychius (again) 577-582

John IV Nesteutes 582-595

Cyriacus 595-606

Thomas I 607-610

Sergius 610-638

Pyrrhos I 638-641

Paul II 641-654

Pyrrhos I (again) 655

Peter 655-666

Thomas II 667-669

John V 669-675

Constantine I 675-677

Theodore I 677-679

George I 679-686

Theodore I (again) 686-687

Paul III 688-694

Callincus I 694-705

Cyrus 705-712

John VI 712-715

Germanos I 715-730

Anastasios 730-754

Constantine II 754-766

Nicetas I 766-780

Paul IV 780-784

Tarasios 784-806

Nicephorus 806-815

Theodotus (Melissenus Kassiteras) 815-821

Anthony I Kassimatas 821-834

John VII 834-843

Methodios I 843-847

Ignatius (Nicetas) 847-858

Photius 858-867

Ignatius (again) 867-878

Photius (again) 878-886

Stephan I 886-893

Anthony II Cauleas 893-901

Nicholas I Mysticus 901-907

Euthymius 907-912

Nicholas I (again) 911-925

Stephan II 925-928

Tryphon 928-931

Theophylact 933-956

Polyeuctos 956-970

Basil I Scamandrenus 970-974

Anthony III Studites 974-980

Nicholas II 984-995

Sisinnius II 995-998

Sergius II Manuelites 999-1019

Eustathius 1019-1025

Alexius Studites 1025-1043

Michael I Cerularius 1043-1058

Constantine III 1059-1063

John VIII Xiphilinus 1064-1075

Cosmos I 1075-1081

all from SynCP above

Eustratius Garidas 1081-1084

Nicholas III 1084-1111

John IX Agapetus 1111-1134

Leon Styppes 1134-1143

Michael I Curcuas 1143-1146

Cosmos II Atticus 1146-1147

Nicholas IV Muzalon 1147-1151

Theodotus 1151-1153

Neophytus I 1153

Constantine IV 1154-1156

Lucas Chrysoberges 1156-1169

Michael III 1169-1177

Chariton Eugeneiotes 1177-1178

Theodosios Boradiotes 1178-1183

Basil II Camaterus 1183-1187

Nicetas II Muntanes 1187-1190

Leontius Theotokites 1190-1191

Dositheus 1191-1192

George II Xiohilinus 1192-1199

John X Camaterus 1199-1206

Michael IV 1206-1212

Theodore II Eirenicus 1212-1215

Maximos II 1215

Manule I Sarantenus 1215-1222

Germanus II 1222-1240

Methodius 1240

Manuel II 1244-1255

Arsenius 1255-1260

Nicephorus II 1260-1261

Arsenius (again) 1261-1267

Germanus III (Lazos Markutzas) 1267

Joseph I 1268-1275

John XI Beccus 1275-1282

Joseph I (again) 1282-1283

Gregory II (George) 1283-1289

Athanasius I 1289-1293

John XII (Cosmos) 1294-1303

Athansius I (again) 1303-1311

Nephon 1311-1315

John XIII Glykys 1316-1320

Gerasimos I 1320-1321

Jesaias 1323-1334

John XIV Aprenos 1334-1347

Isidore I 1347-1349

Callistos I 1350-1354

Philotheus 1354-1355

Callistos I (again) 1355-1363

Philotheus (again) 1364-1376

Macarius 1376-1379

Nilus 1380-1388

Anthony IV 1389-1390

Macarius (again) 1390-1391

Anthony IV (again) 1391-1397

Callistos II 1397

Mathaios I 1397-1410

Euthymius II 1410-1416

Joseph II 1416-1439

Metrophanes II 1440-1443

Gregory III (Mammas) 1443-1450

Athanasios 1450

Gennadios II (George Curtesius) Scholarius 1453-1457

Isidore II 1459-1462

Joseph I 1463

Maximos IV 1491-1497

Metrophanes III 1565-1572

Metrophanes III 1579-1598

List of Byzantine Dynasties

The history of the Byzantine State starts 324 when Constantinus the Great gone emperor over the whole Roman Empire and put the basis of a new capital close the old city. This new capital was first named New Rome but was afterward renamed to Constantinople. Through 395 the Roman Empire is permanently separated between a eastern and a western emperor. The eastern part of the Roman Empire was ruled by the Greek language and had therefore the character of a Greek empire and culture. In the meanwhile the western part perished in fewer than a century after the division, the eastern part would as the Byzantine Empire exist until 1204 when it was captured by the crusaders of the fourth crusade. The crusaders made the Latin Empire in its place but the Byzantine bequest endured in the Greek empire of Nicea, which captured the Latin Empire 1261 and reconstructed the Byzantine Empire. But it was much thicker than it had been before the attack of the forth crusade and could not forbid the expansive Ottoman Empire, which closed the cyrcle of the history of the Byzantine Empire when it conquered and captured Constantinople in 1453.

-Dynasty of Theodosius (364-457)

395-408 Arcadius

408-450 Theodosius II

450-457 Marcian (m. Pulcheria, granddaughter Theodosius I)

-Dynasty of Leo (457-518)

457-474 Leo I

474 Leo II

474-491 Zeno

491-518 Anastasius

-Dynasty of Justinian (518-602)

518-527 Justin

527-565 Justinian I

565-578 Justin II

578-582 Tiberius II

582-602 Maurice

602-610 Phocas

-Dynasty of Heraclius (610-695)

610-641 Heraclius

641-668 Constans II

668-685 Constantine IV

685-695 Justinian II (banished)

695-698 Leontius

698-705 Tiberius III

705-711 Justinian II (restored)

-(no dynasty) with Heraclian dynasty again

711-713 Bardanes

713-716 Anastasius II

716-717 Theodosius II

-Isaurian Dynasty (717-802)

717-741 Leo III

741-775 Constantien V Copronymus

775-780 Leo IV

780-797 Constantine VI (blinded/murdered by his mother, Irene)

797-802 Irene

802-811 Nicephorus I

811 Strauracius

811-813 Michael I

813-820 Leo V

-Phrygian Dynasty (820-867)

820-829 Michael II

829-842 Theophilus

842-867 Michael III

-Macedonian Dynasty (867-1056)

867-886 Basil I

886-912 Leo VI and Alexander
and 913

912-959 Constantine VII Porphygenitus
919-944 Romanus I Lecapenus
924 Constantine (VIII),
Romanus' son, attempts usurpation. Fails.

959-963 Romanus II

963-1025 Basil II Bulgaroctonus
Constantine VIII (IX)
963 Regency of Theophano (widow Romanus II)
963-969 Nicephorus II Phocas
969-976 John Tzimiskes (who had murdered Nicephorus II and married Theophano)

1025-1028 Constantine VIII (IX) alone

1028-1034 Romanus III Argyrus

1034-1041 Michael IV the Paphlagonian

1041-1042 Michael V Calaphates

1042 Zoe and Theodora

1042-1055 Constantine IX Monomchus (husband of Zoe, who dies 1050)

1055-1056 Theodora alone

1056-1057 Michael VI Stratioticus

-Prelude to Comnenian Dynasty

1057-1059 Isaac I Comnenos (abdicated)

1059-1067 Constantine X (1X) Ducas

1067-1071 Romanus IV Diogenes [Constantine (XII)]

1071-1078 Michale VII Ducas

1078-1081 Nicephorus III Botaniates [Revolt of Nicephoros Bryennios]

-Dynasty of the Comneni (restored, 1081-1185)

1081-1118 Alexius I Comnenus

1118-1143 John II Comenus

1143-1180 Manuel I

1180-1183 Alexius II

1183-1185 Andronicus I

-Dynasty of the Angeli (1185-1204)

1185-1195 Isaac II (dethroned)

1195-1203 Alexius II

1203-1204 Isaac II (restored) with Alexius IV

1204 Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus

1204 Loss of Constantinople

-Laskarid Dynasty in Nicea (1204-1261)

1204-1222 Theodore I Lascaris

1222-1254 John III Ducas Vatatzes

1254-1258 Theodore II Lascaris

1258-1261 John IV Lascaris

-Dynasty of the Palaeologi (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)

1259-1282 Michael VIII Paleologus

1261 Recapture of the capital Constantinople

1282-1343 Andronicus II

1293-1320 Michael IX

-Period of anarchy with Palaiologan Dynasty up to 1453

1328-1341 Andronicus III

1341-1376 John V Cantancuzenus

1341-1354 John VI

1376-1379 Andronicus IV

1379-1391 John V (restored)

1390 John VII

1391-1425 Manuel II

1425-1448 John VIII

1449-1453 Constantine IX (XIII) Dragases

5-29-1453 Capture of Constantinople by Mohammed II

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