Crusader Orders

The Hospitallers order, the Templars order, and the Teutonic Knights were totally primitively Crusading Orders, but with the come down of Acre in 1291, in effect lost their reason for being, and finished up wandering around Europe.

The Templars:

Knights of Saint John Hospital witch called the Hospitallers, were in the beginning a group which cherished weary christian pilgrims at the Hospital of Saint John in Jerusalem. Afterward their internalisation as a military order, they carried on to run the hospital, which acquired them respect and prestige. Afterward the come down of Acre in 1291, they actuated first to Cyprus, and so to the island of Rhodes (Rhodos) in 1307, then Malta in 1522-23. Their symbol was primitively (1248) a white cross on black, altered in 1259 to a white cross on red.

The Hospitallers:

The Templars order, or Poor Knights of the Temple of Solomon, were primitively a group which escorted and saved pilgrims while they were travelling through with the Seljuk acreses. They dwelt in a hostel close the Temple of Solomon, thence the name Templars. They had many estates in Europe, and once Acre fell in 1291, retired to their European estates, and got affected in banking and diplomacy, which attained them unpopular, pertinent where King Philippe the Just of France baked the Grand Master and two senior officers at the bet for alleged heresies. In 1312, Pope Clement V brought out a decree conquering the Order. Their symbol was a red cross on white.

Since to the anatomies of these crosses, the cross of the Hospitallers may have acquired into the current shape of the Maltese Cross, but since to the Knights Templar, and the earliest Hospitallers, I have found that the anatomies can be said to be extended Iron Crosses.

The 2 anatomies of crosses do not acquaint a case of development bod one to the extra. The extended Iron Crosses, the kind of matter that in the Templar case afforded advance to the Saint George Cross of England, were applied by both the Templars and the Hospitallers since their streamers and arms. I have not attain anything about the white-on-black to white-on-red alteration of the Hospitallers, but many arranges with some kind of ancestry from the Hospitallers apply the anatropous English flag in some anatomy to this day. At the equal time, both and so and at once, the eight-pointed Maltese, or Saint John, Cross was applied as a badge. It actually arose since the badge of the commonwealth of Amalfi, and rather maybe was not originally a cross, just an allegory built of 4 arrowheads. It was adoptive by the Brotherhood of the Hospital in Jerusalem (yet before the institution of the Order) when the merchandisers of Amalfi re-purchased the place of the hospital constituted approximately 600AD and reconstructed it. At the establishment of the Order (officially accredited in 1113), the monastics wore black gowns with the eight-pointed cross on the left boob. It seems adjust to empathise that the white cross on red was chiefly applied by the Knights of the Order in their military actions, and the eight-pointed cross whilst at the convent.

Without doubt the apply of the two symbols across the a lot of years since changed, and was most belike at a lot times not well delimitated, I guess, but there is many evidence of the apply of both on the time when the Order of Saint John had one of the firmest naval darts of the Mediterranean, once the apply of the eight-pointed, or as it got acknowledged, Maltese Cross on a red backdrop became more common as a flag. I approximate the modern Maltese civil ensign can be ascertained as a consequence of this.

Original call of the Templars was Pauperes commilitiones Christi templique Salomonici. The order was accomplished in 1119 by a group of 8 knights chaired by Hugue de Payns and Godefried de St. Omer in order to give bodyguard to pilgrims and just a few years lated king Baldwin II afforded them division of the royal castle which was Al-Aqsa mosque (called Solomon's Temple by the crusaders) on the temple backing which afforded the order its call.

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Steven Runciman

Steven Runciman Biography:

Steven Runciman (James Cochran Stevenson), was born on 1903 (7 July) in Northumberland. He was the younger boy of Walter Runciman, afterward to get the first Viscount Runciman of Doxford, and his parents were the 1st married couple to seat as MPs at as is time. He learned and studied history at his mother's alma mom, Trinity College, Cambridge, taking a 1st class degree in 1925. Accompanying his postgraduate studies nether J. B. Bury, he got a fellow of the college (1927), and he became a lecturer (1932).

Abiding by the dying of his grandfather in 1937 and his heritage of a rather hearty sum, in 1938, he abject his lectureship so to focus in full on writing. He served in the Second World War as a press attaché case in Sofia and a film ban in Jerusalem and Cairo before being appointive professor of Byzantine artwork and history at the University of Istanbul, a post he accommodated till 1945. These would be his close academic post, carry through for an honorary companionship at Cambridge University ,Trinity College in 1965.

Retreat from a perm academic post didn't arrest Runciman from active actively in academic life. Besides countless littler lectures, he birthed the Waynflete lectures at Oxford University in 1953 to 1954, the Gifford Lectures at the St Andrews University between 1960 - 1962, and the Birbeck lectures at Cambridge University, Trinity College in 1966. Owed in big depart to his work on the history of the Orthodox Christian Church, he was called the Grand Orator of the Greek Christian Church, the senior consisted attitude in the patriarch’s synod.

Besides assorted academic honors, he was knighted in 1958 and appointive a Companion of honor in 1984. He never conjoined, and died out on one November 2000.

Steven Runciman Crusades Books:

- The Fall of Constantinople 1453.

- A History of the Crusades, Volume III : The Kingdom of Acre and the Later...

- A History of the Crusades (3 Volume Set).

- A History of the Crusades, Volume II : The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the…

- The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later…

- Byzantine Civilization.

- A History of the Crusades, Volume I : The First Crusade and the Foundation.

- The Eastern Schism: A Study of the Papacy and the Eastern Churches During…

- The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his Reign: A Study of Tenth-Century…

- The Assault on Jerusalem (Pocket Penguins 70's).

- The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841-1946.

- The Age of Illumination. 3 volume set. Art and Civilisation - Byzantine,…

- The Last Byzantine Renaissance.

- A history of the first Bulgarian empire.

- The Lost Capital of Byzantium: The History of Mistra and the Peloponnese

- Byzantine (Style and Civilization).

- The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy.

- The Great Church in Captivity: A Study of the Patriarchate of…

- The Byzantine Theocracy: The Weil Lectures, Cincinatti.

- A Traveller's Alphabet: Partial Memoirs.

- Dzieje Wypraw Krzyzowych.

- La sagrada Biblia.

- Orthodox Churches and the Secular State.

- East and West, Today and Yesterday: ICR Monograph Series No. 16.

- Anglican initiatives in christian unity;: Lectures delivered in Lambeth…

- The Families of Outremer: The Feudal Nobility of the Crusader Kingdom of…

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Jonathan Riley-Smith

Jonathan Riley-Smith

Jonathan Riley-Smith or (Riley-Smith, Jonathan) Dixie Professor of ecclesiastic History at Cambridge University. He was born in June (27 June 1938). He was educated at Eton College and Trinity College Cambridge University. He got his BA in 1960, his MA degree in 1964, phd degree in 1964, and LittD in 2001 from Cambridge University.

From 1964 to 1972 become Professor Smith taught at the Unversity of St Andrews in the Department of Medieval History, firstly as assistant lecturer, till 1966, and then as lecturer. By 1972 to 1978, he assisted at Cambridge University on the history faculty. From 1978 until 1994 he was prof of history at London University. In1994, Professor Smith has served on the staffs of history and divinity at Cambridge University. He's a associate of Emmanuel College, Cambridge University. By 1997 until 1999 he was president of the faculty of history.

Professor Jonathan Riley-Smith was a founder member in 1980, acting secretaire from 1980 to 1982 and president from 1987 to 1995 of the Society for the Study of the Crusade movement and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Additional lays he's held include , Most Venerable Order of St John, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Knight of Grace and Devotion, Order Pro Merito Melitens, and Knight of Justice, Officer of Merit. Professor Smith is married with 3 children.

Professor Jonathan Riley-Smith Books:

- The Oxford History of the Crusades, Oxford University Press

- The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford University Press

- Wozu heilige Kriege? By Jonathan Riley-Smith

- Atlas of the Crusades

- The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading: University of Pennsylvania Press

- The First Crusaders, 1095-1131, Cambridge University press

- A History of the Crusades, Oxford University Press

- Hospitallers : The History of the Order of St. John, Hambledon Press

- Hospitallers: The History of the Orders of st John, Hambledon press

- In Laudem Hierosolymitani: Studies in Crusades and Medieval Culture in Honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, Ashgate Publishing

- The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press

- Crusades: A History, Yale University Press.

- Crusades, Ashgate Publishing

- Crusades: A Short History, Continuum International Publishing Group

- The First Crusaders, 1095-1131, Cambridge University Press

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Council of Clermont (November 1095)
Middle Aged Dating

Middle Aged Dating

There's nothing more hard than reluctantly ascertaining yourself back in the dating aspect when you're middle aged. Generally, the circumstances that bring you back into the singles hound are not all of the time pleasant. You perhaps a widower mourning the loss of your better half or a scorned divorcee that's hurt. Just assure yourself that you're not entirely, although you may feel this method and tell yourself that perpetually. It may have been decennia since you last dated and so often has commuted, but don't let this deter you from being your life.

Your heart is even beating and there is several life to live. This is something that you ask to actualize. A lot of people that are middle aged dating and dating once again occasionally lack confidence in their show. Nobody is anticipating you to look like you did while you were twenty-two and dancing to the Gap Band's, You cut down A Bomb On Me. It's not 1982 any longer and you don't have to play the part that you did when you were single then. In front you re-enter the singles aspect, you must assume yourself for who you are currently. Now this doesn't mean that you cannot reinvent your show if thats what you desire. By all means, change your hairstyle, work on your body at the gym, and buy a new closet if that's really something that you need to do for yourself.

These should be considered as a new starting and perhaps you'll feel dissimilar if you look dissimilar. That is completely apprehensible to an extent, but do not feel like who you're right now isn't good enough. Sure, you may go to some bars in town and see gorgeous and fit twenty-somethings out and about, but this are not the people you're competing against, unless you're looking for rob the cradle, which some perhaps and that is your perquisite. Everybody your age, out and about is searching love and are confronted with the same hitches and insecurities as you. If anything, be comfortable in the fact that outside of a love interest, you are believably fairly accomplished and stable in your life. Your kids are most expected grown and out or closely out of the house and you know way more now than you did 20 or thirty years agone. Try to centering on that energy instead of the negative as you develop to throw yourself back into the dating aspect. You will belike find yourself much more prosperous and ready to go back to going out.

A lot of middle aged people have the experiencing that nobody will want them as of the "baggage" assorted with being widowed from somebody you deeply loved or the hurt and trauma involved a betrayed marriage. First, remind yourself that most people near your age, if they're single and on the prowl, have carried out the same thing you are feeling. You may very well encounter someone that is widowed or bitter from a divorce. It may actually be salutary for you to date just to find some decent people, in the same locating in life as you, to talk to and commit in.

It's as well particularly significant to analyse your emotions before dating once again. You may never genuinely be over the death of a married person or the complications of a painful divorce, but you should all in a point where you have aggrieved enough and you are ready to take life by the horns. Besides, be sure you know exactly what you want. If you are not searching something in particular grievous, make sure whomever you are dating knows this. It is okay if you feel the ask to take things boring and it's even fine if you're chiefly looking for a cast aside as long as you communicate it and are creditworthy with everything.

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Contact Crusades-Medieval

Contact Crusades-Medieval which about: medieval Crusades, history of the crusades, first crusade, the second crusade, third crusade, fourth crusade, arms of the crusaders, the crusades history, Runciman crusades, crusade history, medieval studies, middle aged dating, middle age people, the middle ages ...

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The Poor in Medieval Times

These fell under 2 categories, native-born and immigrants. The poor in medieval times were often the same as the urban poor in whatever time: they were those who were either totally without work or who were so chronically under-employed that they were abbreviated to relying upon charity in one form or another. Some were people who had become disenabled. Some were people whose trade betrayed them in one way or another ("gone away of business" in modern parlance). Some were born into impoverishment. Sometimes the poverty was ephemeral, the result of economic agitates or war.

The cities in general recognized aid of their own mediocre as a civic duty. The town's churches took the lead here, for the care of the poor was a historic obligation of the Catholic Church. Some cities had accomplished a dole, either permanently or to be applied in times of crisis. And the guilds themselves frequently had a treasury that could be applied to care for the sick, the unemployed, and the families of at peace guildsmen. By the late Middle Ages, such as action had get part of club regulations in a lot of cities, so that the guild acted as a relief agency for its extremities.

Cities were positions of asylum for the countryside. In wartime, the peasants of the countryside flew to the city walls for aegis. In famine they came to the cities for food. On economic crises, they came anticipating work.

Cities commonly tried to adapt such refugees, provided such adjustment did not imperil the city itself. There was a composite relation with the countryside. Some towns did jurisdiction over abutting villages and felt a particular obligation towards them, while other towns' agency ended at the city walls and so did their sense of duty. Even the most greathearted of cities, even so, found affairs when it was essential to get tough towards a flood of refugees. At such times, a city might arrange all non-native poor be booted out and the city gates close behind them. There were as well times when the city shut its gates early. This occurred on war, when a city acknowledged it would be beleaguered, and could not attempt to feed the taking flight peasant population by with its possess.

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God Wills It

The pious Crusaders never pinned their succeeders on mere luck. Any good chance was nothing less than the favour of God. They often claimed God and saints looked to them - assuring them their reason was holy, or yet catering battle plans for the following day. If a battle was becoming poorly, they'd pray that God would annul their chances. And if their chances were annulled -- whether through another troops or a auspicious wind - that destine was God's will.

At the siege of Antioch, a boor named Peter Bartholomew arrogated St. Andrew had looked to him. Agreeing to Peter, St. Andrew said to him that the Holy Lance, averred to have perforate Christ's side, was buried below the cathedral. A hoary piece of metal was dug, which was assured as a great countenance by God. But sceptics thought Peter had buried the metal himself. When matters were going ailing, baffled warriors called Peter a dupery. In reaction, Peter extended to stand test by fire, arrogating that God would protect him. When he came out badly burned and died, his assistants claimed it was as the watching crowd wasn't devout sufficiency.


- Introduction to the crusades history
- First Crusade 1095-1099
- Leaders of The First Crusade
- Motives and Causes of The Crusade
- Cilicia in The First Crusade
- Nicaea in The First Crusade

Nicaea in The First Crusade

The first goal was the city of Nicaea (New Iznik), the local Turkish capital, approximately 250km from Constantinople. The Emperor Alexios was very apprehensive that Nicaea be captured as it was the centre of Turkish functionings against Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Appropriating it would also aid the crusaders in annihilating opposition to their passage by Anatolia (modern Turkey). They went on the old Roman road, which was very outgrown, so they had to acquit the path with swords and axes. As with the Romans before them, this appropriated them to build a supply line then that food could be bestowed to the flocks at the front. At this arrange of the expedition leastways, the Byzantines were even very much abiding the crusaders. The first armies, conduced by Godfrey, Tancred, Hugh of Vermandois and Robert of Flanders, arrived at Nicaea on six May and laid beleaguering to the city. They were connected on fourteen May by Bohemond's regular army.

The Emperor had directed two Greek strategians to accompany the Crusade: Manuel Boutoumites and Tatikios - the latter was an strange character, a half-Greek and half-Arab eunuch. He was an experienced soldier and had a metal nose, having baffled his master nose in a battle. He controlled a small regular army of 2,000 Byzantine soldiers.

Matters were going well; the Turkish occupants of Nicaea were speaking to Manuel Boutoumites and negotiating terms for capitulation. Then on fifteen May, they suddenly commuted their minds and threw him out. Two caught spies broke the cause why: the local Turkish leader, Kilij Arslan, was bringing back from the East, with a big army. He would reach Nicaea the following day and signified to attack 3 hours afterward dawn (approximately 10am).

At this arrange, Raymond's army, about third of the total Crusading military force, was yet about a day's march from Nicaea, so it wasn't clear whether he'd arrive eventually. As it happened, Raymond reached dawn, just before the Turks, who came as anticipated three hours later. Kilij Arslan miscalculated the durability of the crusaders. He attacked and there was a battle, but he soon adjudicated he was outnumbered and fled.

Nicaea was at the east close of a long lake. One gate of the city opened onto the lake, the other 3 gates were saved by impressive surrounds walls, 5 kilometer long and 10 meter high. By 3 June totally the crusaders had went far, the last groups being guided and led by Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois. This was the first time the full crusader regular army was together in one position and it was very telling. There were believably approximately 75,000 crusaders, of whom 7,500 were rode knights and 5,000 of infantry.

They colonised in for a long besieging. The first step was to construct siege weapons, expending wood from local forests trees. The crusaders didn't at any stage bear siege weapons along with them, but assembled them on the spot from whatsoever was at hand. These browsed from simple twists such moveable shelters to protect a group of bombardment from the surrounds walls, to "mangonels", a case of catapult which could fire missiles through the city.

Once the catapults were prepare, they began on the second step, which was to counteract the spirit of the enemy. They cut off the heads of any Turks killed in the battle. Some of these they stuck on poles around the outside of the city. Others they fired into the city using their catapults. In requital, the Turks got their hands on some Christian bodies, soldiers who had abided too near from the walls and been killed by arrows men. They lowered confronting hooks down and carted the bodies into the city, then attended them on the walls to rotting - a sign of what would occur to any Christian who defended a Turk.

The crusaders constructed scaling ladders but their attempts to storm the city failed. A knight named Henry of Esch built a moveable shelter below which twenty men could approach up to the walls, with the intent of apprehending under them. The guardians threw stones down on top of it, breaking the whole building and killing all the men inner. Raymond's flocks were more successful. Their shelter - known as a 'tortoise' - brought them right to the walls, where sappers (trained miners) compassed under a division of wall and managed to break it only before nightfall. But by the following morning, the wall had been reconstructed from within.

The Crusaders didn't yet have the accomplishments to build the really big beleaguering weapons such as towers, or the heavy-duty arbalests needed to crush a wall by barrage, so the beleaguering was turning into an impasse.

The crusader's principal weapon in a siege, starving, was ineffectual because of the lake; it was about 30 kilometer long, too long to be beleaguered, then there was nothing to arrest the beleaguered Turks from acquiring supplies into the city by boat. They could survive indefinitely. The crusaders selected the only solvent was to use boats themselves. They directed a messenger to Alexios, and on this occasion he came up with the goods. Particular carts were constructed and boats were brought round the lake overland, coming on 17 June, 1097.

The following day, the crusaders coordinated a combined lake and ground attack on the city. On board the boats were cornetists and drummers, who made an tremendous noise, giving the impression that the fleet was much bigger than it really was. The beleaguered Turks accomplished that without their lifeline crosswise the lake, they could not survive. Within hours they had surrendered. The Greeks took charge, taking hold of the city and forbidding the crusaders from either despoiling or massacring the people within. The crusader leadership continued to their accord with the Emperor and turned over the city over to Byzantine ascendance.

Alexios himself now arrived personally at nearby Pelekanum and assembled with the leaders of the crusaders. He had already amazed what he wanted, the bring back of Nicaea to Byzantine hold. He got them to reincarnate their oaths to him, and ordered Tatikios to remain with the crusaders for the time being to offer tactical advice. The crusaders anticipated that he would also supply an army to companion them, but none was approaching. From here on, they were on their possess.

In the final week of June 1097 they depart from Nicaea. If they break up, they would be hospitable attack by Kilij Arslan who was all the same in the area. If they moved into one mass, they'd have great troubles getting enough food, as they were now living by scrounging and despoiling. They selected to split into two groups, one being directed by Bohemond and Raymond.

In the meantime, Kilij Arslan had been engaged negotiating a truce with his neighbors, and they combined to make a greater force to beat back the Christians.

- Motives and Causes of The Crusade
- Cilicia in The First Crusade
- Map of Christendom and its Neighbours in 11th Century
- Map of Christendom and its Neighbours in 12th Century
- Map of The Routes of the First Crusade

Leaders of The First Crusade

The First Crusade leaders included some of the greatest representatives of European knighthood. Count Raymond of Toulouse headed a lot of offers from Provence in southerly France. Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin compelled a force of French and Germans of the Rhinelands. Normandy based Robert, William I eldest son. The Normans from Italy and Sicily were directed by Bohemond, a son of Robert Guiscard, and his nephew Tancred.

The main leaders:

- Godfrey of Bouillon
- Bohemond
- Raymond IV
- Baldwin
- Tancred


- Fulcher of Chartres
- Orderic Vitalis
- Otto of Freising
- Roger of Hoveden
- William of Newburgh

Eadmer (1066 – 1124)

Eadmer (1066 – 1124), English historian and ecclesiastical, was credibly, as his name proposes, of English, and not of Norman parentage. He got a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, where he made the conversance of Anselm, at that time visiting England as abbot of Bec. The intimacy was regenerated when Anselm got archbishop of Canterbury in 1093; thenceforward Eadmer wasn't only his disciple and follower, but his friend and director, being formally charged to this location by Pope Urban II. In 1120 he was constituted to the archbishopric of St Andrews, just as the Scots wouldn't recognize the assurance of the see of Canterbury he was never blessed, and soon afterward he abject his claim to the archbishopric. His death is in general assigned to the year 1124.

Eadmer left a multitude of writings, the most authoritative of which is his Historiae novorum, a work which deals chiefly with the history of England between 1066 and 1122. Although concerned mainly with ecclesiastic affairs scholars accord in concerning the Historia as among the ablest and most of value writings of its kind. It was first edited by John Selden in 1623 and, with Eadmer's Vita Anselmi, has been edited by Martin Rule for the "Rolls Series" (London, 1884). The Vita Anselmi, first printed at Antwerp in 1551, is believably the better life of the saint. Less remarkable are Eadmer's lives of St Dunstan, St Bregwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and St Oswald, archbishop of York; these are totally printed in Henry Wharton's Anglia Sacra, part ii. (1691), where a list of Eadmer's writings will be ascertained. The holographs of most of Eadmer's acts are bore on in the depository library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.


- Otto of Freising
- Roger of Hoveden
- Michael Psellus (1018 – 1078)
- Florence of Worcester

Galbert of Bruges

Galbert of Bruges (1075 - 1128). A Flemish chronicler who wrote a absorbing eyewitness account of the murder of Charles the Good, count of Flanders, in 1127 and the power conflict involving the Flemish aristocracy and towners that led to the constitution of Thierry d’Alsace as count in 1128. Galbert tells us only that he was a notary in the service of the count, and thus credibly a clerk in minor orders instead of a priest or canon. He wrote his first adaptation on full tablets, then retooled and enclosed other material into his elaborated description of the events of April and May 1127, then wrote a more full general discourse of developments in Flanders in the second half of that year. With the reclamation of civil discord between February and July 1128, he compiled another diary, one that's less detailed than the first and that he left unfinished, a fact maybe arguing an former death. His history was apparently unread in the Middle Ages for want of a frequenter willing to overlook its often hostile portraiture of figures in authorisation. A manuscript, now confounded, was apparently kept at Bruges, and copies were built in the 16th and seventeenth centuries.

"The Murder, Betrayal and Assassination of the Glorious Charles, Count of Flanders" is among the most widely read books of the Middle Ages. It narrates the blackwash of Charles, Count of Flanders, and the events directing up to and abiding by the murder. Galbert was a occupant of Bruges and had assisted in the count's administration for leastwise 13 years by the time of the assassination in 1127. He was well-acquainted with Charles and many of the other doers in this drama, an eyewitness to many of the cases he relates, and exceptionally well positioned to accumulate information about other people. Galbert's chronicle adopts the form of a journal, the only one that exists from northwest Europe in the 12th century. Edited by two of the world's largest specialists on Galbert today, Jeff Rider and Alan V. Murray, this book brings collectively essays by constituted scholars who have been largely creditworthy for the radical alters in the apprehension of Galbert and his work that have occurred over the last 30 years and essays by younger scholars. The essays are written by British, Belgian, Dutch, German, Canadian, and American scholarly persons of literature and history, and are separated into four divisions - Galbert of Bruges at Work, Galbert of Bruges and the Development of Institutions, Galbert of Bruges and the Politics of Gender, and The Meanings of History. The book admits an copious bibliography of variants, translations, and studies of Galbert's account, and of works committed to the rule of Charles the Good and the Flemish Crisis of 1127-28, to the government and creations of Flanders in the age of Galbert, and to the topography and history of mediaeval Bruges.


- Marianus Scotus (1028 – 1082/1083)
- Ssu-ma Kuang (1019 – 1086)
- Michael Psellus (1018 – 1078)

Crusades Archive

Introduction to the crusades history

First Crusade 1095-1099

Second Crusade 1147-1149

The Third Crusade

Fourth Crusade 1204

Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE)

Sixth Crusade (1228-1229)

The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem

Summary of The Major Crusades

Chronology to the crusades

Speech of pope Urban II at Clermont 1095 (Account ...

Speech of pope Urban II at Clermont 1095 (Account ...

First crusade (successful of the main army)

The foundation of the latin kingdom

RHC, The Recueil des historiens des croisades

RHGF, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la F...

Zimmern Chronicle or Zimmerische Chronik


Richard Lion Heart

Arsuf Battle

Crusades Bibliography

The Failure of the Second Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade

William the Conqueror (William of England)

William of Malmesbury

William of Tyre (The Greatest crusade historians)

The Doge of Venice and the Fourth Crusade

Origin of The Crusades

The Siege of Antioch

Baldwin establishes Edessa

Egypt at the Time of the First Crusade

Syria at the Time of the First Crusade

The Crusaders in Asia Minor

Bohemond and the Capture of Antioch

The Enthusiasm of The Crusades

The Capture of Jerusalem

Results of The Crusades

Hospitalers and Templars

The Battle of Ascalon (12 August 1099)

Godfrey and The Holy Sepulcher

The Latin Kingdom and Its Neighbors

The First conflicts Between The Crusaders and The ...

The Death of Godfrey in 1100 and The Succeed of Ba...

Battle of Dorylaeum

Crusade of 1101

Albert of Aix Biography

Guibert of Nogent

Urban II Biography

Shepherds Crusade 1251

Shepherds Crusade 1320

Battle of Manzikert

Norwegian Crusade 1107-1110

Fulcher of Chartres

Orderic Vitalis

Otto of Freising

Roger of Hoveden

William of Newburgh

Council of Clermont (November 1095)

The Ninth Crusade

A History of Deeds Done Beyond The Sea

Crusades Maps:

Map of Christendom and its Neighbours in 11th Century

Map of Christendom and its Neighbours in 12th Century

Map of The Routes of the First Crusade

The Crusader States in The East

Western Europe at the time of the Second Crusade
Routes of the French and German armies in the Second Crusade

The Ninth Crusade

The Ninth Crusade is generally regarded to be the end of the medieval Crusades versus the Muslims in the holy place Land.

Prince Edward of England had got in Tunis very late to add to St. Louis of France's 8th Crusade, but along with Charles of Anjou he carried on to Acre, capital of the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They went far in 1271, even as the Mamluk sultan Baibars was unsuccessfully beleaguering Tripoli, the last left dominion of the County of Tripoli. Originally, in 1268, Baibars had besides captured the Antioch, the last remainder of the princedom of Antioch.

Baibars too built the first Mamluk naval forces and assayed to land on Cyprus in 1271, absorbing Hugh III of Cyprus (the nominative king of Jerusalem) away of Acre, but the fleet was demolished during the Ninth Crusade. Edward did brief demur mediate between Hugh and his unenthusiastic horse men from the Ibelin family of Cyprus, and manage an eleven-year armistice with Baibars, whilst Baibars first tried to assassinate him by directing men affecting to seek baptism as Christians. Edward brought back home in 1272 as his father Henry III died.

Edward had been attended by Theobald Visconti, who got Pope Gregory X in 1271. Gregory asked a new ninth crusade, particularly at the Council of Lyons in 1274, but aught came of this. Charles, however, took vantage of a altercate between Hugh III, the Knights Templar, and the Venetians so to bestow Acre states below his command. He bribed Maria of Antioch's arrogates to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and aggressed Hugh III, who as well arrogated the kingdom. In 1277 Hugh of San Severino becharmed Acre for Charles.

Venice so advised a ninth crusade be addressed versus Constantinople, wherever Michael VIII had recently re-built the Byzantine Empire. In 1281 Pope Martin IV afforded permit for this; the French acquired the land road concluded Durazzo, whilst the Venetians took the sea route. However, after the Sicilian Vespers on March 31, 1282, incited by Michael VIII, Charles was pulled to come back home.

This was the last military expedition attempted against the Byzantines or the Muslims in the east. By 1291 the Mameluks had captivated the close of the Crusader dominions.

* Speech of pope Urban II at Clermont 1095
* RHC, The Recueil des historiens des croisades
* Zimmern Chronicle or Zimmerische Chronik
* Saladin
* Richard Lion Heart

Routes of the French and German armies in the Second Crusade

The second crusade was in answer to the fall of Edessa in 1144. Its aspiration was St Bernard who in 1146 persuaded both Louis VII of France and the German Emperor Conrad III to enter. The road picked out was through Hungary and crosswise the Balkans. The Germans arrived at Constantinople in September 1147 and the French came in October. The Germans were arrested by the Turks near Dorylaion and connected up with the French who were bordering down the west coast of Asia Minor.

Routes of the French and German armies in the Second Crusade

Conrad fell ill and came back to Constantinople, where he took ship to Palestine. Louis agitated his way to Attaleia, wherefrom he was ferried by the Byzantines to Antioch. Damascus was elect as the destination of the crusade. A brief besieging (24–28 July 1148) broke up in disarray. As a participant ascertained, ‘if it brought no worldly achiever, it was good for the redemption of many souls’. Assorted with this crusade were an English outing which appropriated Lisbon from the Muslims (October 1147) and a Saxon campaign crosswise the Elbe versus the Slavic Wends.

Recent Posts:

* Western Europe at the time of the Second Crusade
* The Crusader States in The East

Map of The Routes of the First Crusade

In 1095, Pope Urban II started preaching for an expedition to the Holy Land in reaction to a request by Alexius I Comnenus [the Byzantine emperor], for mercenary soldiers to fight the Seljuk Turks. But the western answer was altogether more ambitious, asking huge numbers of military pilgrims under their own leaders, who crossed Europe and Asia Minor to reach Syria, and arrived Jerusalem in 1099. They initiated a series of outside campaigns (crusades as they were later called) which mobilized the military possible of Christendom. Initially, the crusaders found the new conditions challenging: the heat, difficult terrain, and the fluid tactics of a nomadic enemy. The big siege of Antioch taught them how to overcome the Muslims in battle and worked a veteran force. At Jerusalem, their mastery of siege technology achieved their goal.

Map of The Routes of the First Crusade

Crusading needed a high level of organisation. Forces had to be raised which would retain military effectiveness for a campaign which might last years in competitive territory far from home. Logistical support would be a constant problem. The First Crusade, the frrst expedition of its kind, was a prevail of improvisation. The troops were advanced by several powerful princes: Raymond, count of St Gilles from south of France; from the north, Godfrey of Bouillon, his brothers, the counts of Flanders and Boulogne, also Robert duke of Normandy who mortgaged the duchy to stock his forces; and the Normans of the south of Italy, led by Bohemond of Taranto. He was experienced in warfare against Alexius and his Turkish mercenaries, and a man of unlimited aspiration and litde scruple, like his nephew Tancred. There was no clear command structure among these known princes. Urban did not follow the expedition, but charged as his legate Adhemar, bishop ofLe Puy. Raymond also needed leaders, but the other princes were unWilling to give him priority.


Angus MacKay, Atlas of medieval europe, London 1997, P. 87.

Nicholas Hooper, The Cambridge illustrated atlas of warfare : the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press 1996, P. 86.

Council of Clermont (November 1095)

In August of the year 1095, Pope Urban II here in south of France. Urban was a pope intensely committed to Church reform and he planned to see to it personally. He directed letters from Le Puy passion for a universal Church meeting in November at the city of Clermont. He depleted September and October visiting different towns, interviewing bishops and abbots, distributing praise or punishment as he saw fit. He gets in in Clermont in mid-November.

The Council sat from the 18th through the 28th of November. It was a large Council with over three hundred clerics presence. The Council approved reforming rescripts in custody with the Cluniac reform movement, including ones concerning simony and religious marriage. At this Council, also, King Philip of France was cursed for betrayal.

The pope besides made an proclamation that a communal session would be detained Tuesday 27 November at which the pope would make an important address to the common broadcast. This bent a good apportion of activity, and numerous people from the walking areas came to Clermont to consider the pope's conditions.

There are 6 chief sources of information about this portion of the meeting: Fulcher of Chartres, Robert the Monk, Baldric of Dol, and Guibert de Nogent, who were apparently bring at the council; also the Gesta Francorum or The Deeds of the Franks, and a letter written by Urban himself in December of 1095.

According to Fulcher, Urban addressed assorted abuses of the church such as simony and the require of attachment to the quiet and Peace of God. He then required western Christians, penniless and rich, to come to the aid of the Greeks in the east, because "God wills it." Fulcher account that Urban promised decrease of blunders for those who went to the east, though he maybe did not mean what later came to be named pampering.

Robert the Monk, prose about 20 years after the council, recorded that Urban's stress was on reconquering the Holy Land quite than assisting the Greeks. According to Robert, Urban listed assorted dreadful offenses of the Muslims, but did not allusion indulgences or direct anybody but knights to go. Robert's account was essentially an full version of the speaking recorded in the anonymous Gesta Francorum, written around 1100.

Baldrick as well based his account on the Gesta Francorum, and wrote about the same time; he too alert on the offenses of the Muslims and the reconquest of the Holy Land. Like Fulcher he too recorded that Urban deplored the force of the Christian Knights, and required to put it to better use against the Muslims.

Guibert of Nogent also recorded that Urban's emphasize was reconquest of the Holy Land, but not ncessarily to help the Greeks or other Christians there; Urban's speaking, in Nogent's edition, said that the Holy Land must be in Christian possession so that prophecies about the end of the world could be completed.

Urban's own letter does not allusion Jerusalem at all; he only calls for help for the Eastern Churches, and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to command the Crusade.

On the last day of the council, a common name was sent out to the knights and noblemen of France. Urban himself spent a few months preaching the Crusade in France, during which time the stress presumably turned from plateful Alexius to spiritual Jerusalem; the common universe, upon earshot about the Council, perhaps realized this to be the aspect of the Crusade in the first place.

Previous Posts:

- Speech of pope Urban II at Clermont 1095
- First Crusade 1095-1099
- Saladin
- Arsuf Battle
- William of Tyre (The Greatest crusade historians)

Fulcher of Chartres


Fulcher of Chartres (intuitive around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a accountr of the First campaign. He wrote in Latin.

Fulcher's Life:

His apthingment as chaplain of Baldwin of Boulogne in 1097 recommtops that he had been educated as a priest, most probable at the teach in Chartres. However, he was maybe not a part of the cathedral piece, while he is not named in the roll of the Dignitaries of the cathedral of Our woman of Chartres.

The minutiae of the committee of Clermont in his saga recommend he attended the assembly personally, or knew superstar who did, perhaps bishop Ivo of Chartres, who also influenced Fulcher's opinions on cathedral reform and the investiture controversy with the Holy Roman Empire.

Fulcher was part of the train of reckon Stephen of Blois and Robert of Normandy which made its way through southern France and Italy in 1096, crossing into the complex Empire from Bari and indoors in Constantinople in 1097, where they coupled with the other armies of the First crusade. He travelled through Asia youth to Marash, quickly before the throng's arrival at Antioch in 1097, where he was apthinged chaplain to Baldwin of Boulogne. He followed his new noble after Baldwin leave off from the foremost throng, to Edessa where Baldwin founded the region of Edessa.

After the victory of Jerusalem in 1099 Fulcher and Baldwin travelled to the city to overall their vow of pilgrimage. When Baldwin became ruler of Jerusalem in 1100, Fulcher came with him to Jerusalem and maybe constant to act as his chaplain pfinale 1115. After 1115 he was the tenet of the cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre and was maybe responsible for the remnants and riches in the minster. Fulcher died most probable in the coil of 1127.

Fulcher's account:

At the initial, Fulcher began his account in the minute autumn of 1100, or at the minutest in the coil of 1101, in a panache that has not outlived but which was transmitted to Europe during his time. This panache was overalld around 1106 and was shabby as a well by Guibert of Nogent, a contemporary of Fulcher in Europe.

He began his work at the urging of his travelling companions, who maybe included Baldwin I. He had at snubest one store in Jerusalem at his disposal, from which he had access to mail and other documents of the campaign. In this store the Historia Francorum of Raymond of Aguilers and the Gesta Francorum must also have been vacant, which served as wells for greatly of the definite information in Fulcher's work that he did not personally witness.

Fulcher alienated his account into three books. Book I described the preparations for the First campaign in Clermont in 1095 up to the victory of Jerusalem and the establishment of the queendom of Jerusalem by Godfrey of Bouillon. It included an enthereforeiastic description of Constantinople. The back book described the deeds of Baldwin I, who succeeded Godfrey and was ruler of Jerusalem from 1100 to 1118. The third and ultimate book reported on the life of ruler Baldwin II, pfinale 1127 when there was a plague in Jerusalem, during which Fulcher apparently died. The back and third books were printed from around 1109 to 1115, and from 1118 to 1127, compiled into a back text by Fulcher himself.

Fulcher's work was shabby by many other accountrs who lived after him. William of Tyre and William of Malmesbury shabby part of the account as a well. His account is normally accurate, still not totally so. It was available in the Recueil des historiens des croisades and the Patrologia Latina, and a vital text of the Latin panache was available by Heinrich Hagenmeyer in 1913.

Previous Posts:

- William of Tyre
- Guibert of Nogent
- Anna Comnena

Battle of Manzikert

In the eve of 1071:

One of the best disasters to ensue the Byzantine band. The Seljouk turks had been threatening the eastern limits of the Byzantine empire for some years, lacking posing any significant hazard, but in 1071 their chief, Alp Arslan, gathered a enormous compel, perhaps even as large as 100,000 men, and invaded the eastern empire. The Byzantine Emperor, Romanus Diogenes, had gained the throne through matrimony, and ruled as dual emperor with his step-son. He had only been on the throne while 1068, and was not yet safely established. The Turks had crossed the border, and full the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert (now in current Turkey). Romanus Diogenes gathered a giant army, though he was still outnumbered by the Turks, and complex to the border, where he recaptured Akhlat and was besieging Manzikert when the Turks inwards.

The Battle:

The Byzantine military formed up, and superior towards the Turks, who refused to booth and attack, instead with the mobility of their horse-archers to aggravate the advancing Byzantines. Eventually, after numerous hours, Romanus Diogenes planned the withdrawal, intending to arrival to his camp for the night. The withdrawal was not as flat as the advance, and some gaps opened in the line. The Turks agitated the retreating columns, awaiting the Emperor gave the order to alter and argue. At this advantage betrayal played a part in the adversity. The rearguard, commanded by Andronicus Ducas, an adversary of Romanus Diogenes, austerely chronic back to the camp, ignoring the order to alter, and departure the central army to its chance. Once the rearguard was consumed, the Turks were able to outflank the Byzantines, and eventually surround them. To make things inferior, one border of the Byzantine army was sufficiently detached from the central coerce for it to be affected to argue separately. The Byzantines held out awaiting dark, but eventually they were overhelmed. The Emperor himself was captured, and the body of the army cracked.

Manzikert results:

The main answer of the battle was to abandon Asia Minor entirely at the mercy of the Turks. Their bands were able to devastate what is now advanced Turkey almost at will, while what was left of the Byzantine band was complex in the civil wars that followed the defeat. What had been flourishing, abundant, long advanced areas in the affection of the Byzantine empire became virtual desert. Inside ten years of the battle of Manzikert, the Turks had reached Nicea, inside sight of the capital of the Empire. Very few battles had such dramatic and far-reaching property.

Shepherds Crusade 1320

A break movement occurred in May 1320 in Normandy, when a teenage shepherd claimed to have been visited by the Holy Spirit, which instructed him to argument the Moors in Spain. Alike to the 1251 crusade, this faction included commonly immature men, women, and children. They marched to Paris to ask Philip V to advantage them, but he refused to convene with them at all.

Instead they marched south to Aquitaine, attacking castles, majestic officials, priests, and lepers along the way. Their customary targets, however, were Jews, whom they attacked at Saintes, Verdun, Cahors, Albi, and Toulouse, which they reached on June 12. Pope John XXII, in Avignon, gave commands to cease them. When they eventually crossed into Spain, their attacks on the Jews were well-known, and James II of Aragon vowed to guard his citizens. At first they were prohibited from incoming the kingdom at all, but when they did enter in July, James warned all his nobles to make certainly the Jews were reserved careful.

As estimated the shepherds did bout some Jews, especially at the bastion of Montclus, where over 300 Jews were killed. James's son Alfonso was sent out to carry them under contain. Those responsible for the bloodbath at Montclus were arrested and executed. There were no added incidents and the crusade detached.

This "crusade" is seen as a revolt against the French dominion, fairly like the first Shepherds Crusade. Jews were seen as a emblem of royal power, as they were personally confined by the king both in France and in Aragon, and a badge of the royal budget as well, hated by deficient and closely taxed peasants. Only a few time previously, the Jews had been permitted to gain to France, after being debarred in 1306. Any debts allocated to the Jews were collected by the monarchy after their ejection, which doubtless also contributed to the peasant connection of the Jews with the king.

In 1321, King Philip fined those communities in which Jews had been killed. This led to a second revolt, this time among the city population, though later chroniclers imaginary the idea of a "cowherds' crusade," a second wave of the Shepherds' Crusade. Though this never occurred, there were, however, more attacks on Jews as a effect of the fines.

- Shepherds Crusade 1251
- First Crusade 1095-1099
Second Crusade 1147-1149
The Third Crusade
Fourth Crusade 1204

The Black Death

Emergence out of the East, the Black Death reached the coast of Italy in the bound of 1348 unleashing a tear of loss across Europe unprecedented in fileed history. By the time the pandemic played itself out three being recentr, somewhere between 25% and 50% of Europe's population had tumbleen victim to the pestilence.

The plague existing itself in three interrerecentd forms. The bubonic variant (the most ordinary) derives its name from the swellings or buboes that emergeed on a victim's stem, armpits or groin. These tumors could reach in bulk from that of an egg to that of an apple. though some survived

The labored nightmare, the manifestation of these lesions regularly noticealed the victim had a life expectancy of up to a week. Infected parasituates that friendly themselves to rats and then to beings drape this bubonic style of the plague. A minute variant - pneumonic plague - attacked the respiratory method and was drape by just breathing the exhaled air of a victim. It was greatly more vichargent than its bubonic cousin - life expectancy was careful in one or two years. lastly, the septicemic reharbor of the disease attacked the blood method.

Having no argument and no understatus of the root of the pestilence, the men, women and children fixed in its amshrub were befoolishered, panicked, and lastly devastated.

The cipher of Impending overthrow:

"The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a spurt of blood from the nose was the apparent notice of inevitable loss; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the bulk of a small apple or an egg, more or excluding, and were boorishly called tumours. In a abrupt hole of time these tumours drape from the two parts named all over the body. hurriedly after this the symptoms tainted and black or purple acne emergeed on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These acne were a certain notice of loss, just as the earliest tumour had been and still remained.

No physician's opinion, no medicine could overcome or alleviate this disease, An colossal number of ignorant men and women set up as physicians in addition to those who were sslaughtered. each the disease was such that no action was probable or the physicians were so ignorant that they did not know what cashabby it, and consequently could not administer the accuscale remedy. In any argument very few healthier; most people died inside about three years of the emergeance of the tumours described above, most of them lacking any fever or other symptoms.

The violence of this disease was such that the sick communicated it to the glaring who came near them, just as a fire catches something dry or fatty near it. And it even went beyond. To talk to or go near the sick brought infection and a ordinary loss to the living; and moreover, to compactings the clothes or something besides the sick had compactingsed or shabby gave the disease to the self compactingsing. "

Previous Posts:

* France Medieval History
* The Magna Carta
* Castle Kitchens
* The Great Hall

The Magna Carta

The Magna Carta is an English official document written in 1215 CE which had a colossal affect on the developing lawful approach of England. Because England's legal approach was worn as a archetype by many earlier colonies when they urbanized their own legal systems, the Magna Carta also had an bang on many other governments. Many legal historians consider that the Magna Carta is one of the most important documents of all time, and several copies of it are on ceremony around the world for engaged parties to appraise.
The accurate name for the Magna Carta is the Magna Carta Libertatum, the Great Charter of Freedoms. The document is generally abbreviated as the Magna Carta, or Great Charter. It could be considered a charge of rights for medieval England, though it was not deeply enforced for numerous centuries. More importantly, it set a precedent which altered the face of England eternally, by establishing that the King was not above the law.
King John of England narrative the Magna Carta after immense anxiety from the Church and his barons. The King regularly lived above the law, breaking both feudal and communal law, and was broadly criticized for his foreign policy and actions inside England. The Barons, with the assist of the Church, pressured King John to bring out a directory of their rights and agreement that those rights would be enforced. The Barons provided a conscript, and after some negotiation, King John put his varnish to the Magna Carta in Runnymede in June of 1215.

Many of the rights in the Magna Carta actually appeared in elder documents, such as the Charter of Liberties available by Henry I. However, the Magna Carta also enclosed numerous clauses which were very important on the development of analogous bills of rights, such as the first 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution. Among these were the right to habeas body, a clause custodial the abandon of the church, and other clauses which spelled out the system for due manage of law.

King John later collapsed the Magna Carta, activating a war which lasted awaiting his casualty in 1216. His son, Henry III, took the throne, and reissued the Magna Carta in 1225, albeit in a different edition. Numerous more drafts of the Magna Carta were created, enforcing its function in English society, awaiting the closing edition was free by Edward I in 1297. Strangely, the Magna Carta seemed to depart pending almost 200 years later, when the Elizabethan era sparked a new activity in and commotion over the historical document.

Previous Posts:

* William the Conqueror (William of England)
Richard Lion Heart
Charlemagne (A.D. 742-814)
Treaty of Verdun A.D. 814
The Bayeux Tapestry
William of Malmesbury