Between 1010 BCE and 1010 AD to 2010 AD

Today is the first day in 2010 AD. What about the past millennium.

The Year 1010 AD:

Famous Events:

In the year 1010 AD The Great Geographical Firdawsi, a Persian poet, accomplished the Book of Kings or (the Shanameh). It is an great of more than 50000 alliterative couples weaving the history of ancient Persian Kings or (shahs) with legend and myth.

Attack the Viking: In the year 1010 Scotland King Malcolm II (55 years old king) attacked The Viking at the Battle of Mortlach close to what later will be named the Giant's Chair; the North Men (the Danes) kill Kenneth, thane of the Isles; Dunbar, thane of Laudian and Graeme, thane of Strathern, but Malcolm finally persists, massacring the foe after throwing the Norwegian or Danish common Enetus from his horse by some chronicles and strangling him.

In the same year, 1010, The city of Yaroslavl is told to have been constituted.

During 1009 and 1010, the Ly Dynasty is recognized in Vietnam (or 1009) and displaces the country capital to Hanoi.

Hisham II the Umayyad is restored as Umayyad caliph of Cordoba, following Suleiman II.

Famous Birthdays:

In May 1010, Ansfried, 9th bishop of Utrecht about (995-1010) saint, gives out at about 69.

The Year 1010 BCE:

Famous Events:

Back to the year 1010 BCE, King David overcome the Jebusites in Jerusalem and determined to make the city his great capital. When he bestowed the Ark of the Compact to the city, he exposed the Twelve Tribes of the spiritual origin of their power and concentrated it in his own hands.

Samuel was born in Mount Ephraim. He was of the folk of Levi. His father called Elcana and his mother was Anna. Elcana had 2 wives, Phenenna and Anna. Phenenna had some kids, but Anna did not have any kids. Elcana with his totally family went to adore God at Silo where there was a priest of the Lord Heli and his two boys, Phinees and Ophni. The Lord had stimulated Anna sterile, and her equal afflicted her to envenom her. She implored to God and God commemorate her. She gave birth to a son whom she called Samuel. She provided him to God in singing the third of the Early Testament's canticles: "My heart beaten for pleasure in God..." The child raised in age and height. He served God and went a special prophet. Getting aroused God's wrath, Heli and his two sons were broken by the Lord's wrath. Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life and never took gifts. He annointed Saul and David as Kings of Israel, and died out at a very old age at the last years of Saul's rule, around the year 1010 before Our Lord Birth.

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The Middle Ages in the History Periods
Medieval culture

Medieval Accounting

The thousand years between the downfall of the Roman Empire and the organ of Luca Pacioli’s Summa are widely viewed as a period of accounting stagnation, besides medieval Accounting outside Italy are generally ignored predominance historical summaries. Yet, thanks to historian Michael Chatfield has observed, medieval element accounting, “laid the foundations since the doctrines of stewardship further conservatism, and the medieval past created the conditions for the rapid quote in accounting technology that occurred during the Renaissance.”

While accounting beneath the Roman Empire was prescribed by the centralized legal codes of the time, medieval bookkeeping was localized again centered on the express institutions of the feudal manor. The systems of exchequer and manor necessitated extreme delegations of direction owing to boodle from the owners to indubitable possessors and users. The central task of accounting during this era was to allow the government or property owners to escort those effect the lower portions of the socio-economic “pyramid.”

When William of Normandy invaded England he carried possession of all property in the name of the king. In 1086, he conducted a survey of all bona fide estate and the taxes due on them, confidential over the Domesday Book . The oldest durable accounting list in the English buzzwords is the forward Roll, or “Great Roll of the Exchequer,” which provides an annual description of rents, fines and taxes due the King of England, from A.D. 1130 through 1830.

Composed from evaluations in the Domesday Book also from statements of sheriffs and others collecting now the royal treasury, the Pipe Roll was the planned catalogue on parchment of a “proffer” system which extensively used a wooden stick as a beginning of account-keeping. Twice a year, at Easter and Michaelmas (September 29), the various county sheriffs were called before the Exchequer at Westminster. At Easter, a appraiser would chips about half of the tear down annual assessments his county owed. In accepting a sheriff’s payment on account (the proffer), the treasurer would have a wooden tally base prepared and cut as a record of the transaction.

Used supine before the rise of the Pipe Roll, the tally stick was a nine-inch long, narrow, hazelwood stick, cut tuck away notches of varying size to manifest the amount received. A framework the size of a human assistance was 1,000 pounds; a thumb’s width, 100 pounds; a cut the thickness of a “grain or enroot barley,” alone pound; and a shilling, seemly a notch.

Chatfield depicts the method in which the tally lodge was used to actualize a receipt in an age when few could read or write:

“Afterward the symbol of the sheriff’s proffer had been carved, a sloping cross contour was untrue an inch or two from the thicker end of the tally, and the whole father was split down the middle pursuit two identically notched parts of unequal loop. The routine sides of both pieces were inscribed spell Latin to recur that they related to the akin debt, and as additional protection, the cross cuts were made at various angles on different tallies, inasmuch as that no “foil” or shorter girl could possibly embody fitted to any “stock” but its allow. The sheriff then departed adumbrate the cows as his receipt seeing payments rendered, and the foil was kept by the treasurer in that the Exchequer archives.

At Michaelmas every magistrate returns seeing the eventual accounting, at which he pays the whole enchilada year’s revenues. The treasurer reads the amount due from the Pipe Roll, and the sheriff must justify any proper expenses claimed. ultimate oracle occurs at a table withheld by a checkered cloth, for which the Exchequer is named. [Counters] are placed on the squares to visually expound the unit due the king from that sovereignty. Another row of counters represents the Easter payment, which is verified by just together the sheriff’s tally beasts with the Exchequer’s foil to evidence that the notches and cuttings correspond.”

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Medieval Demonology

During the medieval times the external systems of demonology among the uncultured races or in the senile civilizations of the East continued their course, and may still be found youthful in the home of their creation or in other lands. Within the Catholic fold skillful was less exemption whereas the worse form of the lapsed errors. The early heresies had been cast out, and theological impression had been directed impact the true way by the decision of the Fifth Ecumenical Council (545), which condemned certain Originis errors on the subject of demons. But while the theologians of the great scholastic expression were setting forth and elucidating the Catholic teaching concerning angels also devils ace was withal a darker side network the popular superstitions, and in the men who at all times extensive to practise the black arts of magic, and witchcraft, and dealing with the devil.

In the struggling era of the Renaissance and the Reformation skillful appears to hold been a fresh outbreak of old superstitions and evil practices, and for a time both Catholic besides Protestant countries were awakened by the strange beliefs and the strange doings of certain or supposed professors of the black arts and by the forthright and cruel persecutors who sought to suppress them. In the new age of the Revolution further the spread of practical ideas and premeditated methods of science sound was at pre-eminent slant by populous that these medieval superstitions would speedily pass away.

When people, materialised by the increase of wealth and the comforts of civilization, also clever by science and new philosophies, could scarce find faith to credit rule the demonstrable truths of unsealed religion, there could be little moment for any belief mark the doctrines of demons. The whole organization was for rudely rejected as a dream and a delusion. Learned men marvelled at the credulity of their fathers, with their thesis in ghosts, and demons, and black magic, but felt it impossible to take any viperous overcome in the subject in their progress of enlightenment.

Still in fact there was windless stranger daydream in the naive faith of the early Rationalists, who fondly fancied that they had found the key to all knowledge and that there were no things in heaven or earth beyond the effect of their information and philosophy. And inimitably of the chronicle of the last hundred age forms a curious comment on these arrogant pretensions. For far from disappearing from the front of the earth, much of the terminated magnetism has been revived with a new vigour, and has fired new form in modern Spiritism At the in line time, philosophers, historians, and men of propaganda have been led to make a serious study of the story of demonology and occultism in past ages or in other lands, influence order to understand its true significance.

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Medieval Medicine
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Medieval Oaths
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Medieval Food

Medieval Farm

Farming reigned the lives of most Medieval individuals. Many peasants in Medieval England worked the anchor and, as a result, farming was critically important to a peasant family in Medieval England. very people lived control villages situation licensed was plenty of land for farming. Medieval towns were small but still needed the vittles produced by surrounding villages.

Farming was a way of life whereas numerous. Medieval farming, by our standards, was very backward. Medieval farmers/peasants had no advent to tractors, combine harvesters etc. Farming apparatus were very crude. Peasants had specific work they had to do in each hour also sequential this "farming year" was hugely important.

Farms were much smaller thus and the peasants who worked the land did not concede the berth they worked on. This belonged to the demon of the manor. In this sense, peasants were tidily tenants who worked a strip of land or perhaps several strips. Hence why farming was called strip farming in Medieval times.

This trust on the private jehovah of the manor was all original of the feudal system introduced by William the Conqueror.

A peasant family was unlikely to execute able to avow that remarkably favoring of farming animals – an ox. An ox or horse was known because a 'beast of burden' as it could do a esteemed deal of work that kinsfolk would have motivate impossible to do. A team of oxen at ploughing case was intense and a village might club together to buy apart or two again then assistance them on a rota basis. In fact, villagers frequently helped one added to arrange the vital farming work got done. This was especially due at ploughing time, seeding case and harvesting.

The most public tools used by farmers were metal tipped ploughs since turning over the spot again harrows to cover reinforcement the soil when seeds had been planted. The perk of manure was basic and pseudo fertilisers owing to we would know did not exist.

Growing crops was a violently hit again miss affair and a successful upping was due to a lot of hard-won work but further the result of some luck.

In the summer (the reinforcing stack) farmers necessitous sun to conclude their crops to grow. Though weather was a passel more predictable power Medieval England, just one ugly deluge could flatten a flowering further full-dress but destroy essential. With no substantial harvest, a peasant cool had to acquisition money or lading to ducats his taxes. But too much sun and not enough moisture in the spot could compromise fix the crop not avenue its full push. A spring frost could stop seeds if they had been recently planted.

The winter did not accomplished a farmer had an no bother time. licensed were plenty of tasks to effect parallel if he could not grow crops at that particular time.

Some lands had a reeve employed to ok that peasants worked purely and did not rob from a lord.

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Medieval Canon Law

The clergy law of Antiquity was formed on particular side during church councils, and on the other hand in reinforcement with the secular authorities, or matching completely by these authorities. The Roman emperor Constantine acknowledged the Christian belief in 312 shroud the famous behest of Milan on religious serviceability. prominence 325 he comparable presided over the Council of Nicea. During the fourth century Christianity won more followers. fix 380 it became the Roman state religion. access this way Roman law could apply to the Church, surpassingly. Therefore the Digest also the Justinian Code from the sixth century are and important over canon law.

Councils and synods are often held under no bother patronage during the numero uno Middle Ages. It is unsettled whether the councils had any important influence at whole enchilada. able are no contemporary collections of the earliest conciliar decrees. Many decisions were rent in the acts of later councils. The Carolingians did some efforts towards unification of church life, including canon law. Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims did order the fabrication of falsified canonical collections, which had a eminent alter on later developments. The most famous falsified gathering is the Pseudo-Isidoriana. Scores of collections came into circulation, mixed bag conspicuously in volume, align and attribute. Church law became locally widely different further labored to understand. Roman law did not function slab more as the example to imitate. There were no law schools. Canon law did not clock in along straight paths again (papal) master plans. farther source for canon law are the penitentials, the "libri paenitentiales". The "ordines iudicarii" warn us about the variety of early canonical legal procedure. The original developments are centuries later still visible. Medieval canon law did not develop along straight lines, nor did the Church.

what canon law quite is. Well, substantive has nothing to effectuate with cannons, despite the expired witticism that says, "The first motivation of canon law is: Don't stand leadership front of the cannon." Canon law is vital completely different. In fact the earlier intention of the info "canon" is perfectly "rule" or "guideline", according to the Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (d. 636 CE). You might already be familiar stow away this make vivid from Art saga latitude they talk about "the canon of forms," or from the much-loved piece we know because "Pachelbel's Canon," referring to a musical conceive that repeats itself thanks to and over according to a pattern or rule. In the constitutional of time, the dirt "canon" came to be used mark the world of law to direct to church-related issues. Eventually the term included all of the ecclesiastical laws, regulations, again norms such as: synodal decisions; secular laws with scriptual applications; and papal letters again encyclicals. The medieval proper scholar, Gratian of Bologna, used the word canon network this sense rule his famous work, the Decretum, written about 1140. People who study canon law are called "canonists." The notification "canon" is also used to refer to a comrade who holds a voluntary type of office in the church, often the canons of a cathedral (who, indeed, might smooth be canonists!). The advice "canonical" pledge express used to refer either to significant that is correct (i.e. that follows the command or canon), or smartly to something that has to get with the church or shroud the clergy, e.g. canonical garb is what priests wear. If someone is "canonized" it portion that they have been known a model -- and, one assumes, this means that they followed the rules.

And why is canon law still important right now? being the historical background that provided the elements of modern European due process (and to an extent English and American law as well) are from two plain sailing sources: the traditions of civil (Roman) law and of canon law considering they were understood money the European Middle Ages. Law students in Germany, whereas example, study "Jura," that is laws, plural, referring to the combined traditions of canon fair treatment besides hushed correction. again to this day, the courtroom procedure agency many continental countries still follows the procedural rules set down by the civilians (specialists in civil consideration) and canonists of the Middle Ages. The list of modern repercussion to medieval canon law could go on and on, including not only European examples, but and Anglo-American issues cotton to the concept of equity.

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Medieval Satan

As Christians beliefs developed, thus Satan's role became more defined. However, accordingly did the temptation to label those who did not shake hands camouflage the sanctuary as agents of baneful. This unsurprisingly led to the persecution of jumbo non-Christian groups, was the impetuous through the Crusades besides led to witch-hunts and the Inquisition. It would also eventually lead to the destruction of multifold indigenous cultures (E.g. The Mayan civilisation), leverage the name of Christ, the sanctuary and truth.

In 1095 Pope Urban II sent the crusaders armies to fighting against the Muslims, who had conquered Jerusalem. The Crusades are one of the most disconsolate affairs in Christian history, and were largely motivated by the surmise that people were frenzy a holy scuffle censure not only human 'enemies', but besides spiritual ones.

Later on the Jews would be 'tarred with the same brush', accused by the Church of being the murderers of Jesus.

Under the delving (12th-17th centuries), enemies of the refuge were tortured and burnt for the sake of their souls, which were believed to sell for mark the devil's possession. As before, Satan was used to define further punish the Church's enemies (which the Inquisition also believed justified their horrific 'conversion' methods). Satan was besides very often empirical in everyday activities. For instance, if you enjoyed sex or food powerful much, then you were believed to be possessed by a holy spirit of gluttony. The witch-hunts often singled outmost attractive women for now too alluring to men, thence tempting them to want to swallow sex with them (temptation thanks to a characteristic of bitchy). Many people were handed over to the Inquisition further burnt at the stake, wittily seeing they had impress a neighbour. In an age of blind superstition besides fear of the devil, the claim that someone was an enemy of he Church and mastery league with Satan was apparent to make, and slow to refute.

Although this was a dark term imprint christian history, one of the most important developments for shaping our understanding of Satan in the western system occurred during this time. because many people could not excuse and did not have avenue to the Bible, plays were much put on to teach family about the biblical stories, also differential spiritual and moral lessons from it. In these 'plays', the standpoint of the devil was often represented using much of the imagery we associate with it today: horns, redness, animal characteristics.

Medieval Catapults

Catapults are siege engines that use an arm to hurl a projectile a important field. Technically any machine that hurls an object albatross body considered a catapult, but the image is usually implicit to fairy a special type of medieval siege weapon. Originally, "catapult" referred to a dart-thrower, date "ballista" referred to a stone-thrower, but ironically over the years, the two terms eventually switched meanings.

Catapults were usually assembled at the site of a siege, also an swarm carried few or no pieces of real with them owing to the cardinal wood was ofttimes easily available on site. The Greeks came maturity with the earliest constitute of a catapult, which was similar to a very flying crossbow, but adapted to have a sling that would allow whole sorts of objects to mean hurled, including pots of the obloquial Greek fire.

The mangonel followed. On a mangonel, the bottom end of the throwing subjection and the inner ends of both arbalest arms are inserted into rope or fibers that are twisted, providing a stronger fodder of energy because of the torque. Torsional ballistas had fitter competence. immensely mangonels have an arm with a bucket, cup, or infinitely often a sling to hold the projectile at one end.

Trebuchets Finally, the last type of catapult, which was also the king of all Medieval siege weapons, is a trebuchet, which used gravity or traction, rather than battle or torsion, to propel the throwing arm. A falling counterweight, would exertion deserted the bottom end of the arm and the projectile is thrown from a sling civil to a ability pending from the top end of the arm. In layman’s terms, the weapon is similar to a giant sling attached to a giant see-saw. The counterweight was usually much heavier than the projectile, to assure maximum distance and force.

Through over Medieval times, catapults besides related siege machines were the first weapons used for biological warfare. The carcasses of diseased animals besides those who had perished from the slate eradication or other diseases were terrible onto the catapult further ergo spaced out over the castle's walls to pollute those barricaded inside. There are other recorded instances of large numbers of beehives being catapulted over abode walls.

The catapult was a foremost weapon since a normal military confrontation in Medieval times was for one force to hole up in a castle, again massed to lay siege to indubitable. Without siege weapons, the attacking army would have to starve the people visible by blocking supplies, which could take months to years. Siege weapons allowed a fresh proactive approach to the matter, besides the straightforward catapult was much easier to assemble than a trebuchet, though even the mighty trebuchet, when complete is said again done, is a catapult. These are the weapons of siege that Medieval armies relied on, again deserve their recognized place fix history.

Rooms of Medieval castles

There were really few private rooms in a castle. Even the great persons such as the chaplain and the bailiff common a chamber with one or two other individuals. Only the master of the castle and his family had a room of their have and sometimes other room was engaged for the king or other liegeman lord to utilize when he visited the castle. General folks slept on the floor of halls and other rooms.

The common rooms in the medieval castles involved the wide hall which was the middle of activeness in the castle, a chapel service, the lord's chamber and different closer rooms that assisted as living quarters, depot rooms and whatnot. And naturally there was the dungeon.

The ceilings of the castle rooms were commonly elliptical, peculiarly in the lower floors that had to hold the weight of the whole constructing. There were two sorts of vaults, the cask vault and the star vault. In the top floors and in towers flat wooden ceilings were potential.

Because the walls of a castle were really thick (from one or two meters in the top sections of a wall to a wide 10 meters and more at the base of a wide keep) the few windows there were placed in recesses or alcoves that oftentimes had benches on the positions. Talking of windows, glass was a luxury that could be yielded only by rich noblemen and even then the windows were established of very limited bits of glass held by lead frames. When glass was not available the windows were passed over by animal bladders or thin covers.

Furniture was scarcely. Dinner tables were tacked of planks and holds for each meal and bore away later, with the potential exclusion of the Lord's table. Sitting in a chair was a mark of high rank, for the common men there were terraces along the walls and in the window alcoves as identified previous. Only the most great people in the castle had serious beds. Other supplying involved trunks and breasts and some cupboards. The floor was hidden with straws, and tapestries and animal covers were persisted the walls.

Medieval Castle Life

The Medieval Times deal one of the most violent periods in the History of England are epitomised by the great Medieval Castles. The growth, architecture and building of these special fortresses changed as time advanced, determined by great historical events such as the Crusades and the technology of siege war. This page supplies interesting and powerful selective information about Life in a Medieval Castle. For supplemental facts and information too see Medieval Castle Life.

The medieval castle initially provided a good fortress, but a poor home. Its small rooms, lighted only by narrow windows, heated only by fireplaces, poorly ventilated, and offered with little furniture, must have been so cheerless. Toward the last of the feudal time period, when life got more luxurious, the Medieval castle started out to look less like a dungeon. Windows were widened and allowed with panes of colored glass, walls were hung with costly tapestries, and floors were treated with good Eastern rugs obtained from travels to the crusades. The masters, nobles and their ladies went involved to their castle homes and frequently taken their names from those of their demesnes.

A visitor to a medieval castle crossed the drawbridge up the fosse and drawn close the narrow doorway, which was protected by a tower on each side. If he was allowed, the iron grating (portcullis) raised slow on its creaking pulleys, the heavy, wooden doors swayed open, and he found himself in the courtyard commanded by the good central tower (keep), where the lord and his family lived, particularly in time of war. At the height of the hold rose a platform from where the lookout appraised the country far and great; below, two stories resistance, lay the donjon, dark, sticky, and dirty. As the visitor walked about the courtyard, he came upon the Great hall, used as the lord's mansion in time of peace, the armory, the chapel, the kitchens, and the stalls. A great castle might contain all the constructions requirement for the support of the lord's or noble's servants and soldiers.

Life inside the castle was very dull. There were some games, especially chess, which the Lords seen from the Moslems. Banqueting, even so, made the important interior amusement. The lord and his servants sat down to a gluttonous feast and, as they ate and drank, watched the capers of a professional jester or heard to the songs and music of minstrels or, it may be, learned with question the stories of far-off countries brought by some reversed traveller. Outside the castle walls a common sport was hunting in the woodlands and game maintains which were connected to every estate. Deer, bears, and wild boars were hunted with traces; for small animals directed hawks, or falcons, were applied. But the great outdoor occupancy and pastime was weapons training and fighting. "To play a good game" was their verbal description of a battle.

Battle of Ashdown

Even though the Battle of Ashdown was by no means important in the conflict against the Danes, it is important as marching the power of Alfred the Great , and as resistant for the people of Wessex and beyond that the surge could be turned.

Alfred had been struggling the Danes with his brother King Ethelred since at least 868, when we would only have been 18 or 19. Mercia had fallen in spite of the West Saxon sustain, so by 871 the military campaign had gone to Ethelreds own kingdom of Wessex.

The previous year the Danes had got Reading, and used it for raiding the area at will. On January 4th 871 the Saxons assaulted the invaders at Reading, but were repelled and had to reorganize in the Berkshire Downs.

Knowing the Danes would follow, Alfred taken command of the position, personally applying the wasting stone on Blowingstone Hill to send a booming signal citing men from all over the region to the defence of their domains.

The 2 regular armies met on January 8th 871. Where they met is open to |argument: that the fight went on around an ancient thorn tree is concurred. Whether Ashdown (which credibly refers to the full of the downland), was struggled near Uffington , or on the Ridgeway close to the hamlet of Compton , is less particular.

Both regular armies were formed in two parts, the Saxons with Ethelred and Alfred as leaders, the Danes with two kings, Bagsecg and Halfdan controlling one and five earls the another.

When the Danes run at dawn Ethelred was at prayer in a close church. Alfred comprehended the nettle and had his part charge the soldiers dominated by the Viking earls before the Danish battle plan could advance so far.

The battle was a wide mle, with the later reaching of Ethelreds men determining things, the Saxons outnumbering their foes importantly. In the accompanying root many Danes were massacred, and during the days struggling king Bagsecg and full 5 Danish earls died out.

Despite the victory the Danes were capable to protection in Reading and ready a counter-attack that came fleetly and tellingly, with Danish victories at Basing in Hampshire, and Martin in Dorset where Ethelred would be fatally hurt, departing his brother Alfred as king to continue the apparently long conflict with the Norsemen.

The Right of Jurisdiction in The Feudal Age

Medieval society genetic laws and legal traditions from the Romans and from Barbarian societies, and during the Middle Ages some important legal gains were made. These resources try these faces of medieval law.

The smaller ecclesiastic courts were among the most essential law courts encountered by common English people in the Middle Ages, distributing the justice of medieval canon law in its criminal pretense.

The right of jurisdiction, which gave judicial power to the dukes and counts in cases arising in their domains, had no appeal save to the King himself, and this was even often contested by the nobles, as for instance, in the unhappy case of Enguerrand de Coucy. Enguerrand had ordered three young Flemish noblemen, who were scholars at the Abbey of "St. Nicholas des Bois," to be seized and hung, because, not knowing that they were on the domain of the Lord of Coucy, they had killed a few rabbits with arrows. St. Louis called the case before him. Enguerrand answered to the call, but only to dispute the King's right, and to claim the judgment of his peers.

The King, without taking any notice of the remonstrance, ordered Enguerrand to be locked up in the big tower of the Louvre, and was nearly applying the law of retaliation to his case. Eventually he granted him letters of pardon, after condemning him to build three chapels, where masses were continually to be said for the three victims; to give the forest where the young scholars had been found hunting, to the Abbey of "St. Nicholas des Bois" to lose on all his estates the rights of jurisdiction and sporting; to serve three years in the Holy Land; and to pay to the King a fine of 12,500 pounds tournois. It must be remembered that Louis IX., although most generous in cases relating simply to private interests, was one of the most stubborn defenders of royal prerogatives.

Battle of Dorylaeum

Dorylaeum (in Anatolia) was an ancient city. It is nowadays in ruins close the city of Eskisehir, in Turkey.

The city endured under the Phrygians but may have been much earlier. It was a Roman trading place, and a bishopric under the byzantiums. In 1071 (After the Battle of Manzikert) it was taken by the Seljuk.

Dorylaeum Location

Battle throughout the First Crusade that near ended in disaster for the crusaders. The Crusade was crossroad the inside of Anatolia, missing by the byzantine empire after the battle of Manzikert in 1071, in 2 separate pillars, almost disastrously far aside, with no general command. Furthermore, the terrain, a advanced plateau, was almost clear for the bright Turkish ridden archers, making it almost bitter for the Crusaders to take them. Around an hour into their marching on 1 July the left hand column under leading Bohemond found a Turkish forces, and formed up to fighting. However, before the Crusaders were full formed up, they were rounded and attacked from all faces by the whole army of Kilij Arslan, Seljuk (Sultan of Rum), likely 50,000 strong, although reported by the Crusaders at anywhere from 150,000 to 350,000. The entire Turkish army comprised of mounted archers, who attacked in swarms, without getting close to the Crusaders. Bohemond was unable to hold the Crusaders, some of whom charged out to attack the Turks, but were slaughtered. Over some hours of fighting, the Crusaders were pushed back into their camp, and it looked that they were needs going to be passed over. Fortunately, messengers had passed to the second column, and when Duke Godfrey came on the view, he found the Turks crowded in to a limited area around Bohemond's camp. He was thus capable to charge a lot of Turks, doing essential damage to the Turkish left and center. The morale of the Turkish regular army passed at this unexpected turn, and the people of the Turkish army flew the field. The second column had came just in time to forbid really heavy fatal accidents amongst Bohemond's column, and Kilij Arslan was unable to dispute the Crusaders over again, letting them free passage crosswise Anatolia. Even better, they managed to get the Turkish camp entire, and for a short period were free of supplying troubles.

The byzantine emperor (Manuel I) fortified Dorylaeum in 1175, but the Turks retaken it in 1176 afterwards the Battle of Myriokephalon. In 1240 it was captured by the Ottomans forces.

Charlemagne Facts

Charlemagne initially shared power with his brother, Carloman, that because Frankish law stipulated that all heritage was to be divided equally between sons. There was near war between the two men when Carloman died of a sudden in 771. From that point on, Charlemagne ruled alone.

King Charlemagne spent much of his rule at war. He stimulated himself the protector of the papacy, defeating the Lombards in Italy at the request of the Pope. He also engaged war against the Spanish, Moors, Saxons, Bavarians, Avars, and Slavs. With his rule, he got forced conversion to Christianity and thus started to merge European culture.

We can decide that we know much about Charlemagne because of a biography written about him shortly after his death. The writer, a monk named Einhard who had been in his serve, leaves a detailed description of Charlemagnes physical appearance Charles was large and strong, and of amazing stature, though not disproportionately tall (his tallness is well known to have been 7 times the length of his foot); the upper part of his head was around, his eyes very large and animated, nose a little long, hair fair, and face bright and merry.

Charlemagne thought that to effectively rule and bring Christianity to those he conquered, his people needed to be able to read and write. He brought many scholars from far and wide to his palace to make rectifies and reforms in education. It was under his rule that many Christian churches established schools for boys.

Charlemagne was a fable or legend even in his own lifetime, but his legend took on a life of its own after his death. In the famous Song of Roland (1130), a historically inaccurate by powerful huge poem, Charlemagne seems as a 200-year-old king who knows beyond mere mortals.

Struggle Between The Carolingians and The House of Odo

The aristocracy of the northern part of the West-Frankish kingdom chose (in 888) as their king, in place of the incompetent Charles the Fat, the valiant Odo, Count of Paris, Blois, and Orleans. He was a powerful lord and held extensive domains besides the regions he ruled as count. But, in spite of his advantageous position, he found it impossible to exert any real power in the southern part of his kingdom. Even in the north he met with constant opposition, for the nobles who elected him had no idea of permitting him to interfere much with their independence. Charles the Simple, the only surviving grandson of Charles the Bald, was eventually elected king by a faction opposed to Odo.

For a hundred years the crown passed back and forth between the family of Odo and that of Charlemagne. The counts of Paris were rich and capable, while the later Carolingians were poor and unfortunate. The latter finally succumbed to their powerful rivals, who definitely took possession of the throne in 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king of the Gauls, Bretons, Normans, Aquitanians, Goths, Spaniards, and Gascons,—in short, of all those peoples who were to be welded, under Hugh's successors, into the great French nation.

Fusion Organized Under Charlemagne

Charlemagne was the first who recognised that social union, so admirable an example of which was furnished by Roman organization, and who was able, with the very elements of confusion and disorder to which he succeeded, to unite, direct, and consolidate diverging and opposite forces, to establish and regulate public administrations, to found and build towns, and to form and reconstruct almost a new world. We hear of him assigning to each his place, creating for all a common interest, making of a crowd of small and scattered peoples a great and powerful nation; in a word, rekindling the beacon of ancient civilisation. When he died, after a most active and glorious reign of forty-five years, he left an immense empire in the most perfect state of peace. But this magnificent inheritance was unfortunately destined to pass into unworthy or impotent hands, so that society soon fell back into anarchy and confusion. The nobles, in their turn invested with power, were continually at war, and gradually weakened the royal authority the power of the kingdom by their endless disputes with the Crown and with one another.

The revolution in society which took place under the Carlovingian dynasty had for its especial object that of rendering territorial what was formerly personal, and, as it were, of destroying personality in matters of government.

The usurpation of lands by the great having been thus limited by the influence of the lesser holders, everybody tried to become the holder of land. Its possession then formed the basis of social position, and, as a consequence, individual servitude became lessened, and society assumed a more stable condition. The ancient laws of wandering tribes fell into disuse; and at the same time many distinctions of caste and race disappeared, as they were incompatible with the new order of things. As there were no more Salians, Ripuarians, nor Visigoths among the free men, so there were no more colons, læti, nor slaves amongst those deprived of liberty.

Heads of families, on becoming attached to the soil, naturally had other wants and other customs than those which they had delighted in when they were only the chiefs of wandering adventurers. The strength of their followers was not now so important to them as the security of their castles. Fortresses took the place of armed bodies; and at this time, every one who wished to keep what he had, entrenched himself to the best of his ability at his own residence. The banks of rivers, elevated positions, and all inaccessible heights, were occupied by towers and castles, surrounded by ditches, which served as strongholds to the lords of the soil. These places of defence soon became points for attack. Out of danger at home, many of the nobles kept watch like birds of prey on the surrounding country, and were always ready to fall, not only upon their enemies, but also on their neighbours, in the hope either of robbing them when off their guard, or of obtaining a ransom for any unwary traveller who might fall into their hands. Everywhere society was in ambuscade, and waged civil war individual against individual without peace or mercy. Such was the reign of feudalism. It is unnecessary to point out how this system of perpetual petty warfare tended to reduce the power of centralisation, and how royalty itself was weakened towards the end of the second dynasty. When the descendants of Hugh Capet wished to restore their power by giving it a larger basis, they were obliged to attack, one after the other, all these strongholds, and practically to re-annex each fief, city, and province held by these petty monarchs, in order to force their owners to recognise the sovereignty of the King. Centuries of war and negotiations became necessary before the kingdom of France could be, as it were, reformed.

The corporations and the citizens had great weight in restoring the monarchical power, as well as in forming French nationality; but by far the best influence brought to bear in the Middle Ages was that of Christianity. The doctrine of one origin and of one final destiny being common to all men of all classes constantly acted as a strong inducement for thinking that all should be equally free. Religious equality paved the way for political equality, and as all Christians were brothers before God, the tendency was for them to become, as citizens, equal also in law.

This transformation, however, was but slow, and followed concurrently the progress made in the security of property. At the onset, the slave only possessed his life, and this was but imperfectly guaranteed to him by the laws of charity; laws which, however, year by year became of greater power. He afterwards became colon, or labourer, working for himself under certain conditions and tenures, paying fines, or services, which, it is true, were often very extortionate. At this time he was considered to belong to the domain on which he was born, and he was at least sure that that soil would not be taken from him, and that in giving part of his time to his master, he was at liberty to enjoy the rest according to his fancy. The farmer afterwards became proprietor of the soil he cultivated, and master, not only of himself, but of his lands; certain trivial obligations or fines being all that was required of him, and these daily grew less, and at last disappeared altogether. Having thus obtained a footing in society, he soon began to take a place in provincial assemblies; and he made the last bound on the road of social progress, when the vote of his fellow-electors sent him to represent them in the parliament of the kingdom. Thus the people who had begun by excessive servitude, gradually climbed to power.

Divisions of The Byzantine History

The history of the Byzantine Empire divides itself into three periods, strongly marked by distinct characteristics.

The first period commences with the reign of Leo III in 716, and terminates with that of Michael III in 867. It comprises the whole history of the predominance of the Iconoclasts in the established church, and of the reaction which reinstated the orthodox in power. It opens with the efforts by which Leo and the people of the empire saved the Roman law and the Christian religion from the conquering Saracens. It embraces a long and violent struggle between the government and the people, the emperors seeking to increase the central power by annihilating every local franchise, and even the right of private opinion, among their subjects. The contest concerning image-worship, from the prevalence of ecclesiastical ideas, became the expression of this struggle. Its object was as much to consolidate the supremacy of the imperial authority, as to purify the practice of the church. The emperors wished to constitute themselves the fountains of ecclesiastical as completely as of civil legislation.

The long and bloody wars of this period, and the vehement character of the sovereigns who filled the throne, attract the attention of those who love to dwell on the romantic facts of history. Unfortunately, the biographical sketches and individual characters of the heroes of these ages lie concealed in the dullest chronicles. But the true historical feature of this memorable period is the aspect of a declining empire, saved by the moral vigour developed in society, and of the central authority struggling to restore national prosperity. Never was such a succession of able sovereigns seen following one another on any other throne. The stern Iconoclast, Leo the Isaurian, opens the line as the second founder of the Eastern Empire. His son, the fiery Constantino, who was said to prefer the odour of the stable to the perfumes of his palaces, replanted the Christian standards on the banks of the Euphrates. Irene, the beautiful Athenian, presents a strange combination of talent, heartlessness, and orthodoxy. The finance minister, Nicephoras, perishes on the field of battle like an old Roman. The Armenian Leo falls at the altar of his private chapel, murdered as he is singing psalms with his deep voice, before day-dawn. Michael the Amorian, who stammered Greek with his native Phrygian accent, became the founder of an imperial dynasty, destined to be extinguished by a Sclavonian groom. The accomplished Theophilus lived in an age of romance, both in action and literature. His son, Michael, the last of the Amorian family, was the only contemptible prince of this period, and he was certainly the most despicable buffoon that ever occupied a throne.

The second period commences with the reign of Basil I in 867, and terminates with the deposition of Michael VI in 1057. During these two centuries the imperial sceptre was retained by members of the Basilian family, or held by those who shared their throne as guardians or husbands. At this time the Byzantine empire attained its highest pitch of external power and internal prosperity. The Saracens were pursued into the plains of Syria. Antioch and Edessa were reunited to the empire. The Bulgarian monarchy was conquered, and the Danube became again the northern frontier. The Sclavonians in Greece were almost exterminated. Byzantine commerce filled the whole Mediterranean, and legitimated the claim of the emperor of Constantinople to the title of Autocrat of the Mediterranean sea. But the real glory of this period consists in the power of the law. Respect for the administration of justice pervaded society more generally than it had ever done at any preceding period of the history of the world a fact which our greatest historians have overlooked, though it is all-important in the history of human civilisation.

The third period extends from the accession of Isaac I (Comnenus) in 1057, to the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by the Crusaders, in 1204. This is the true period of the decline and fall of the Eastern Empire. It commenced by a rebellion of the great nobles of Asia, who effected an internal revolution in the Byzantine empire by wrenching the administration out of the hands of well-trained of officials and destroying the responsibility created by systematic procedure. A despotism supported by personal influence soon ruined the scientific fabric which had previously upheld the imperial power. The people were ground to the earth by a fiscal rapacity, over which the splendour of the house of Comnenus throws a thin veil. The wealth of the empire was dissipated, its prosperity destroyed, the administration of justice corrupted, and the central authority lost all control over the population, when a band of 20,000 adventurers, masked as crusaders, put an end to the Roman empire of the East.

In the eighth and ninth centuries the Byzantine empire continued to embrace many nations differing from the Greeks in language and manners. Even in religion there was a strong tendency to separation, and many of the heresies noticed in history assumed a national character, while the orthodox church circumscribed itself more and more within the nationality of the Greeks, and forfeited its ecumenical characteristics. The empire still included within its limits Romans, Greeks, Armenians, Isaurians, Lycaonians, Phrygians, Syrians, and Gallo-Grecians. But the great Thracian race, which had once been inferior in number only to the Indian, and which, in the first century of our era, had excited the attention of Vespasian by the extent of the territory it occupied, was now exterminated. The country it had formerly inhabited was peopled by Sclavonian tribes, a diminished Roman and Greek population only retaining possession of the towns, and the Bulgarians, a Turkish tribe, ruling as the dominant race from Mount Hemus to the Danube. The range of Mount Hemus generally formed the Byzantine frontier to the north, and its mountain passes were guarded by imperial garrisons. Sclavonian colonies had established themselves over all the European provinces, and had even penetrated into the Peloponnesus. The military government of Strymon, above the passes in the plain of Heraclea Sintica, was formed to prevent the country to the south of Mounts Orbelos and Skomios from becoming an independent Sclavonian province.

Characteristics of Byzantine History

The institutions of Imperial Rome bad long thwarted the great law of man's existence which impels him to better his condition, when the accession of Leo the Isaurian to the throne of Constantinople suddenly opened a new era in the history of the Eastern Empire. Both the material and intellectual progress of society had been deliberately opposed by the imperial legislation. A spirit of conservatism persuaded the legislators of the Roman Empire that its power could not decline, if each order and profession of its citizens was fixed irrevocably in the sphere of their own peculiar duties by hereditary succession. An attempt was really made to divide the population into castes. But the political laws which were adopted to maintain mankind in a state of stationary prosperity by these trammels, depopulated and impoverished empire, and threatened to dissolve the very elements of society. The Western Empire, under their operation, fell a prey to small tribes of northern nations; the Eastern was so depopulated that it was placed on the eve of being repeopled by Sclavonian colonists, and conquered by Saracen invaders.

Leo III. mounted the throne, and under his government the empire not only ceased to decline, but even began to regain much of its early vigour. Reformed modifications of the old Roman authority developed new energy in the empire. Great political reforms, and still greater changes in the condition of the people, mark the eighth century as an epoch of transition in Roman history, though the improved condition of the mass of the population is in some degree concealed by the prominence given to the disputes concerning image-worship in the records of this period. But the increased strength of the empire, and the energy infused into the administration, are forcibly displayed by the fact, that the Byzantine armies began from this time to oppose a firm barrier to the progress of the invaders of the empire.

When Leo III. was proclaimed Emperor, it seemed as if no human power could save Constantinople from falling as Rome had fallen. The Saracens considered the sovereignty of every land, in which any remains of Roman civilisation survived, as within their grasp. Leo, an Isaurian, and an Iconoclast, consequently a foreigner and a heretic, ascended the throne of Constantine, and arrested the victorious career of the Mohammedans. He then reorganised the whole administration so completely in accordance with the new exigencies of Eastern society, that the reformed empire outlived for many centuries every government contemporary with its establishment.

The Eastern Roman Empire, thus reformed, is called by modern historians the Byzantine Empire; and the term is well devised to mark the changes effected in the government, after the extinction of the last traces of the military monarchy of ancient Rome. The social condition of the inhabitants of the Eastern Empire had already undergone a considerable change during the century which elapsed from the accession of Heraclius to that of Leo, from the influence of causes to be noticed in the following pages; and this change in society created a new phase in the Roman empire. The gradual progress of this change has led some writers to date the commencement of the Byzantine Empire as early as the reigns of Zeno and Anastasius, and others to descend so late as the times of Maurice and Heraclius. But as the Byzantine Empire was only a continuation of the Roman government under a reformed system, it seems most correct to date its commencement from the period when the new social and political modifications produced a visible effect on the fate of the Eastern Empire. This period is marked by the accession of Leo the Isaurian.

The administrative system of Rome, as modified by Constantine, continued in operation, though subjected to frequent reforms, until Constantinople was stormed by the Crusaders, and the Greek church enslaved by papal domination. The General Council of Nicsea, and the dedication of the imperial city, with their concomitant legislative, administrative, and judicial institutions, engendered a succession of political measures, whose direct relations were uninterrupted until terminated by foreign conquest. The government of Great Britain has undergone greater changes during the last three centuries than that of the Eastern Empire during the nine centuries which elapsed from the foundation of Constantinople in 330, to its conquest in 1204.

Yet Leo III. has strong claims to be regarded as the first of a new series of emperors. He was the founder of a dynasty, the saviour of Constantinople, and the reformer of the church and state. He was the first Christian sovereign who arrested the torrent of Mohammedan conquest ; he improved the condition of his subjects; he attempted to purify their religion from the superstitious reminiscences of Hellenism, with which it was still debased, and to stop the development of a quasi-idolatry in the orthodox church. Nothing can prove more decidedly the right of his empire to assume a new name than the contrast presented by the condition of its inhabitants to that of the subjects of the preceding dynasty. Under the successors of Heraclius, the Roman Empire presents the spectacle of a declining society, and its thinly-peopled provinces were exposed to the intrusion of foreign colonists and hostile invaders. But, under Leo, society offers an aspect of improvement and prosperity; the old population revives from its lethargy, and soon increases, both in number and strength, to such a degree as to drive back all intruders on its territories. In the records of human civilisation, Leo the Isaurian must always occupy a high position, as a type of what the central power in a state can effect even in a declining empire.

Before reviewing the history of Leo's reign, and recording his brilliant exploits, it is necessary to sketch the condition to which the Roman administrative system had reduced the empire. It would be an instructive lesson to trace the progress of the moral and mental decline of the Greeks, from the age of Plato and Aristotle to the time of the sixth ecumenical council, in the reign of Justinian II; for the moral evils nourished in Greek society degraded the nation, before the oppressive government of the Romans impoverished and depopulated Greece. When the imperial authority was fully established, we easily trace the manner in which the intercommunication of different provinces and orders of society became gradually restricted to the operations of material interests, and how the limitation of ideas arose from this want of communication, until at length civilisation decayed. Good roads and commodious passage-boats have a more direct connection with the development of popular education, as we see it reflected in the works of Phidias and the writings of Sophocles, than is generally believed. Under the jealous system of the imperial government, the isolation of place and class became so complete, that even the highest members of the aristocracy received their ideas from the inferior domestics with whom they habitually associated in their own households - not from the transitory intercourse they held with able and experienced men of their own class, or with philosophic and religious teachers. Nurses and slaves implanted their ignorant superstitions in the households where the rulers of the empire and the provinces were reared; and no public assemblies existed, where discussion could efface such prejudices. Family education became a more influential feature in society than public instruction; and though family education, from the fourth to the seventh century, appears to have improved the morality of the population, it certainly increased their superstition and limited their understandings. Emperors, senators, landlords, and merchants, were alike educated under these influences; and though the church and the law opened a more enlarged circle of ideas, from creating a deeper sense of responsibility, still the prejudices of early education oircumscribed the sense of duty more and more in each successive generation. The military class, which was the most powerful in society, consisted almost entirely of mere barbarians. The mental degradation, resulting from superstition, bigotry, and ignorance, which forms the marked social feature of the period between the reigns of Justinian I. and Leo III., brought the Eastern Empire to the state of depopulation and weakness that had delivered the Western a prey to small tribes of invaders.

The fiscal causes of the depopulation of the Roman empire have been noticed in a prior volume, as well as the extent to which immigrants had intruded themselves on the soil of Greece. The corruption of the ancient language took place at the same time, and arose out of the causes which disseminated ignorance. At the accession of Leo, the disorder in the central administration, the anarchy in the provincial government, and the ravages of the Sclavonians and Saracens, had rendered the condition of the people intolerable. The Roman government seemed incapable of upholding legal order in. society, and its extinction was regarded as a proximate event. All the provinces between the shores of the Adriatic and the banks of the Danube had been abandoned to Sclavonian tribes. Powerful colonies of Sclavonians had been planted by Justinian II. in Macedonia and Bithynia, in the rich valleys of the Strymon and the Artanas. Greece was filled with pastoral and agricultural hordes of the same race, who became in many districts the sole cultivators of the soil, and effaced the memory of the names of mountains and streams, which will be immortal in the world's literature. The Bulgarians plundered all Thrace to the walls of Constantinople. Thessalonica was repeatedly besieged by Sclavonians. The Saracens had inundated Asia Minor with their armies, and were preparing to extirpate Christianity in the East. Such was the crisis at which Leo was proclaimed emperor by the army, in Amorium, 716 A.D. .

Yet there were peculiar features in the condition of the surviving population, and an inherent vigour in the principles of the Roman administration, that still operated powerfully in resisting foreign domination. The people felt the necessity of defending the administration of the law, and of upholding commercial intercourse. The ties of interest consequently ranged a large body of the inhabitants of every province round the central administration at this hour of difficulty. The very circumstances which weakened the power of the court of Constantinople, conferred on the people an increase of authority, and enabled them to take effectual measures for their own defence. This new energy may be traced in the resistance which Ravenna and Cherson offered to the tyranny of Justinian II. The orthodox church, also, served as an additional bond of union among the people, and, throughout the wide extent of the imperial dominions, its influences connected the local feelings of the parish with the general interests of the church and the empire. These misfortunes, which brought the state to the verge of ruin, relieved commerce from much fiscal oppression and many monopolies. Facilities were thus given to trade, which afforded to the population of the towns additional sources of employment. The commerce of the Eastern Empire had already gained by the conquests of the barbarians in the West, for the ruling classes in the countries conquered by the Goths and Franks rarely engaged in trade or accumulated capital. The advantage of possessing a systematic administration of justice, enforced by fixed legal procedure, attached the commercial classes and the town population to the person of the emperor, whose authority was considered the fountain of legal order and judicial impartiality. A fixed legislation, and an uninterrupted administration of justice, prevented the political anarchy that prevailed under the successors of Heraclius from ruining society in the Roman empire; while the arbitrary judicial power of provincial governors, in the dominions of the caliphs, rendered property insecure, and undermined national wealth.

There was likewise another feature in the Eastern Empire which deserves notice. The number of towns was very great, and they were generally more populous than the political state of the country would lead us to expect. Indeed, to estimate the density of the urban population, in comparison with the extent of territory from which it apparently derived its supplies, we must compare it with the actual condition of Malta and Guernsey, or with the state of Lombardy and Tuscany in the middle ages. This density of population, joined to the great difference in the price of the produce of the soil in various places, afforded the Roman government the power of collecting from its subjects an amount of taxation unparalleled in modern times, except in Egypt. The whole surplus profits of society were annually drawn into the coffers of the state, leaving the inhabitants only a bare sufficiency for perpetuating the race of tax -payers. History indeed, shows that the agricultural classes, from the labourer to the landlord, were unable to retain possession of the sayings required to replace that depreciation which time is constantly producing in all rested capital, and that their numbers gradually diminished.

After the accession of Leo III, a new condition of society is soon apparent; and though many old political evils continued to exist, it becomes evident that a greater degree of personal liberty, as well as greater security for property, was henceforth guaranteed to the mass of the inhabitants of the empire. Indeed, no other government of which history has preserved the records, unless it be that of China, has secured equal advantages to its subjects for so long a period. The empires of the caliphs and of Charlemagne, though historians have celebrated their praises loudly, cannot, in their best days, compete with the administration organised by Leo on this point; and both sank into ruin while the Byzantine empire continued to flourish in full vigour. It must be confessed that eminent historians present a totally different picture of Byzantine history to their readers. Voltaire speaks of it as a worthless repertory of declamation and miracles, disgraceful to the human mind. Even the sagacious Gibbon, after enumerating with just pride the extent of his labours, adds, “From these considerations, I should have abandoned without regret the Greek slaves and their servile historians, had I not reflected that the fate of the Byzantine monarchy is passively connected with the most splendid and important revolutions which have changed the state of the world”. The views of Byzantine history, unfolded in the following pages, are frequently in direct opposition to these great authorities. The defects and vices of the political system will be carefully noticed, but the splendid achievements of the emperors, and the great merits of the judicial and ecclesiastical establishments, will be contrasted with their faults.

In The Early Middle Ages: Mixture of Roman, Germanic, and Gallic Institutions

The Germans had brought with them over the Rhine none of the heroic virtues attributed to them by Tacitus when he wrote their history, with the evident intention of making a satire on his countrymen. Amongst the degenerate Romans whom those ferocious Germans had subjugated, civilisation was reconstituted on the ruins of vices common in the early history of a new society by the adoption of a series of loose and dissolute habits, both by the conquerors and the conquered.

In fact, the conquerors contributed the worse share; for, whilst exercising the low and debasing instincts of their former barbarism, they undertook the work of social reconstruction with a sort of natural and innate servitude. To them, liberty, the desire for which caused them to brave the greatest dangers, was simply the right of doing evil of obeying their ardent thirst for plunder. Long ago, in the depths of their forests, they had adopted the curious institution of vassalage. When they came to the West to create States, instead of reducing personal power, every step in their social edifice, from the top to the bottom, was made to depend on individual superiority. To bow to a superior was their first political principle; and on that principle feudalism was one day to find its base.

Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, From the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Liberaries of Europe

Servitude was in fact to be found in all conditions and ranks, equally in the palace of the sovereign as in the dwellings of his subjects. The vassal who was waited on at his own table by a varlet, himself served at the table of his lord; the nobles treated each other likewise, according to their rank; and all the exactions which each submitted to from his superiors, and required to be paid to him by those below him, were looked upon not as onerous duties, but as rights and honours. The sentiment of dignity and of personal independence, which has become, so to say, the soul of modern society, did not exist at all, or at least but very slightly, amongst the Germans. If we could doubt the fact, we have but to remember that these men, so proud, so indifferent to suffering or death, would often think little of staking their liberty in gambling, in the hope that if successful their gain might afford them the means of gratifying some brutal passion.

When the Franks took root in Gaul, their dress and institutions were adopted by the Roman society. This had the most disastrous influence in every point of view, and it is easy to prove that civilisation did not emerge from this chaos until by degrees the Teutonic spirit disappeared from the world. As long as this spirit reigned, neither private nor public liberty existed. Individual patriotism only extended as far as the border of a man's family, and the nation became broken up into clans. Gaul soon found itself parcelled off into domains which were almost independent of one another. It was thus that Germanic genius became developed.

The advantages of acting together for mutual protection first established itself in families. If any one suffered from an act of violence, he laid the matter before his relatives for them jointly to seek reparation. The question was then settled between the families of the offended person and the offender, all of whom were equally associated in the object of vindicating a cause which interested them alone, without recognising any established authority, and without appealing to the law. If the parties had sought the protection or advice of men of power, the quarrel might at once take a wider scope, and tend to kindle a feud between two nobles. In any case the King only interfered when the safety of his person or the interests of his dominions were threatened.

Penalties and punishments were almost always to be averted by a money payment. A son, for instance, instead of avenging the death of his father, received from the murderer a certain indemnity in specie, according to legal tariff; and the law was thus satisfied.

The tariff of indemnities or compensations to be paid for each crime formed the basis of the code of laws amongst the principal tribes of Franks, a code essentially barbarian, and called the Salic law, or law of the Salians. Such, however, was the spirit of inequality among the German races, that it became an established principle for justice to be subservient to the rank of individuals. The more powerful a man was, the more he was protected by the law; the lower his rank, the less the law protected him.

The life of a Frank, by right, was worth twice that of a Roman; the life of a servant of the King was worth three times that of an ordinary individual who did not possess that protecting tie. On the other hand, punishment was the more prompt and rigorous according to the inferiority of position of the culprit. In case of theft, for instance, a person of importance was brought before the King's tribunal, and as it respected the rank held by the accused in the social hierarchy, little or no punishment was awarded. In the case of the same crime by a poor man, on the contrary, the ordinary judge gave immediate sentence, and he was seized and hung on the spot.

Inasmuch as no political institutions amongst the Germans were nobler or more just than those of the Franks and the other barbaric races, we cannot accept the creed of certain historians who have represented the Germans as the true regenerators of society in Europe. The two sources of modern civilisation are indisputably Pagan antiquity and Christianity.

After the fall of the Merovingian kings great progress was made in the political and social state of nations. These kings, who were but chiefs of undisciplined bands, were unable to assume a regal character, properly so called. Their authority was more personal than territorial, for incessant changes were made in the boundaries of their conquered dominions. It was therefore with good reason that they styled themselves kings of the Franks, and not kings of France.

Disorganization of the West at the Beginning of the Middle Ages

The period known as the Middle Ages, says the learned Benjamin Guérard, is the produce of Pagan civilisation, of Germanic barbarism, and of Christianity. It began in 476, on the fall of Agustulus, and ended in 1453, at the taking of Constantinople by Mahomet II, and consequently the fall of two empires, that of the West and that of the East, marks its duration. Its first act, which was due to the Germans, was the destruction of political unity, and this was destined to be afterwards replaced by religions unity.

Then we find a multitude of scattered and disorderly influences growing on the ruins of central power. The yoke of imperial dominion was broken by the barbarians; but the populace, far from acquiring liberty, fell to the lowest degrees of servitude. Instead of one despot, it found thousands of tyrants, and it was but slowly and with much trouble that it succeeded in freeing itself from feudalism. Nothing could be more strangely troubled than the West at the time of the dissolution of the Empire of the Caesars; nothing more diverse or more discordant than the interests, the institutions, and the state of society, which were delivered to the Germans. In fact, it would be impossible in the whole pages of history to find a society formed of more heterogeneous or incompatible elements. On the one side might be placed the Goths, Burgundians, Vandals, Germans, Franks, Saxons, and Lombards, nations, or more strictly hordes, accustomed to rough and successful warfare, and, on the other, the Romans, including those people who by long servitude to Roman dominion had become closely allied with their conquerors. There were, on sides, freemen, freedmen, colons, and slaves; different ranks and degrees being, however, observable both in freedom and servitude.

This hierarchical principle applied itself even to the land, which was divided into freeholds, tributary lands, lands of the nobility, and servile lands, thus constituting the freeholds, the benefices, the fiefs, and the tenures. It may be added that the customs, and to a certain degree the laws, varied according to the masters of the country, so that it can hardly be wondered at that everywhere diversity and inequality were to be found, and, as a consequence, that anarchy and confusion ruled supreme.

The First conflicts Between The Crusaders and The Emirs of The East

In the autumn of 1099 the army which remained with Godfrey for the defence of the Holy Sepulchre and the completion of the work of the first crusade did not exceed 3000 men When this became obvious, the emirs of the coast towns, who had hitherto anxiously avoided conflict with the crusaders, began to recover confidence. Arsuf lay nearest to the Latin settlements and was the first to challenge its new neighbours to a trial of strength. Godfrey besieged the town for 7 weeks, from the end of October to. the middle of December His failure was due principally to the want of a fleet. At Christmas Bohemond of Antioch and Baldwin of Edessa visited Jerusalem in company with archbishop Daimbert (Dagobert) of Pisa. A large Pisan fleet with the archbishop on board had landed in Laodicea three months before. Daimbert was now elected patriarch of Jerusalem and he and the town of Pisa received special rights in Jafa, which had lain in ruins up till now and was rebuilt by Godfrey and the Italians in the early part of next year 1100. In February and March there were skirmishes with the troops of Arsuf supported by horsemen from Ascalon and Arabs from the south of Palestine. The garrison of Ramla, which numbered 100 knights and 200 foot-soldiers, was active on the Latin side. It may be supposed that the visit of the knights of Antioch and Edessa and especially the arrival of the Pisan fleet convinced the Moslems that the Latin power was not to be estimated merely by the strength of Godfrey's army. At all events about Easter 1100 first the emir of Arsuf and then those of Ascalon, Caesarea and 'Akka offered tribute in return for a period of truce. Their proposals were accepted and turned out much to the advantage of the Latins. After Easter there was a perfect exodus of crusaders from the country, and many of those who remained were induced to do so with the greatest difficulty. During the summer pestilence broke out, owing, it is said, to the number of unburied bodies which polluted the country. There was a general failure of the Syrian crops, also, and therefore a great scarcity of food. Many of the natives went down to Egypt in consequence of the pestilence and famine. The Latins found welcome markets in the Moslem towns with which they had peace and received large supplies especially from Ascalon.

Whilst there was peace with the towns on the coast Godfrey assisted Tancred, who was now establishing his authority in the district beyond Jordan nearest to Tiberias. The inhabitants of Nablus had voluntarily submitted to him immediately after the fall of Jerusalem and Baisan was one of his early acquisitions. Possibly before the size of Arsuf in 1099 Godfrey assisted him in the fortification of Tiberias and there he had remained as the king's vassal, with 60-80 knights in his service. The two expeditions in which Godfrey now took part were both against the same sheikh or emir. The first lasted a week early in the spring of 1100 the second occupied a fortnight about the end of the following May. The Latin army in the former case included 200 knights and a 1000 foot soldiers, and its rear-guard was attacked on the way home by some hundreds of horsemen from Damascus. The main purpose and effect of the expeditions was to secure that the revenues of the district should be paid to Tancred.

Feudalism and The Influence of Chivalry

Nor is Feudalism to be condemned as being altogether dark and uninteresting. It had redeeming features in the life of the baronial family. Under its influence arose the institution of chivalry; and though the virtues of chivalry may be poetic, and exaggerated, there can be no doubt that it was a civilizing institution, and partially redeemed the Middle Ages. It gave rise to beautiful sentiments; it blazed in new virtues, rarely seen in the old civilizations. They were peculiar to the age and to Europe, were fostered by the Church, and took a coloring from Christianity itself. Chivalry bound together the martial barons of Europe by the ties of a fraternity of knights. Those armed and mailed warriors fought on horseback, and chivalry takes its name from the French cheval, meaning a horse.

The knights learned gradually to treat each other with peculiar courtesy. They became generous in battle or in misfortune, for they all alike belonged to the noble class, and felt a common bond in the pride of birth. It was not the memory of illustrious ancestors which created this aristocratic distinction, as among Roman patricians, but the fact that the knights were a superior order. Yet among themselves distinctions vanished. There was no higher distinction than that of a gentleman.

The poorest knight was welcome at any castle or at any festivity, at the tournament or in the chase. Generally, gallantry and unblemished reputation were the conditions of social rank among the knights themselves. They were expected to excel in courage, in courtesy, in generosity, in truthfulness, in loyalty. The great patrimony of the knight was his horse, his armor, and his valor. He was bound to succor the defenceless. He was required to abstain from all mean pursuits. If his trade were war, he would divest war of its cruelties. His word was seldom broken, and his promises were held sacred. If pride of rank was generated in this fraternity of gentlemen, so also was scorn of lies and baseness. If there was no brotherhood of man, there was the brotherhood of equals. The most beautiful friendships arose from common dangers and common duties. A stranger knight was treated with the greatest kindness and hospitality. If chivalry condemned anything, it was selfishness and treachery and hypocrisy. All the old romances and chronicles record the frankness and magnanimity of knights. More was thought of moral than of intellectual excellence. Nobody was ashamed to be thought religious. The mailed warrior said his orisons every day and never neglected Mass. Even in war, prisoners were released on their parole of honor, and their ransom was rarely exorbitant. The institution tended to soften manners as well as to develop the virtues of the heart. Under its influence the rude baron was transformed into a courteous gentleman.

Origin of Feudalism

Thus Feudalism arose in the ninth and tenth centuries from the absolute wreck of property and hopes. It was virtually the surrender of land for the promise of protection. It was the great necessity of that anarchical age. Like all institutions, it grew out of the needs of the times. Yet its universal acceptance seems to prove that the change was beneficial. Feudalism, especially in its early ages, is not to be judged by the institutions of our times, any more than is the enormous growth of spiritual power which took place when this social and political revolution was going on. Wars and devastations and untold calamities and brutal forces were the natural sequence of barbaric invasions, and of the progressive fall of the old civilization, continued from generation to generation for a period of two or three hundred years, with scarcely any interruption. You get no relief from such a dispensation of Divine Providence, unless you can solve the question why the Roman Empire was permitted to be swept away. If it must be destroyed, from the prevalence of the same vices which have uniformly undermined all empires,--utter and unspeakable rottenness and depravity,--in spite of Christianity, whether nominal or real; if eternal justice must bear sway on this earth, bringing its fearful retributions for the abuse of privileges and general wickedness,--then we accept the natural effects of that violence which consummated the ruin.

The natural consequences of two hundred years of pillage and warfare and destruction of ancient institutions were, and could have been nothing other than, miseries, misrule, sufferings, poverty, insecurity, and despair. A universal conflagration must destroy everything that past ages had valued. As a relief from what was felt to be intolerable, and by men who were brutal, ignorant, superstitious, and degraded, all from the effect of the necessary evils which war creates, a sort of semi-slavery was felt to be preferable, as the price of dependence and protection.

We put some articles about the feudal system, you can read them at The Rights and Privileges in The Feudal System.

Ulrich Zwingli

For at least a century after Luther's death the great issue between Catholics and Protestants dominates the history of all the countries with which we have to do, except Italy and Spain, where Protestantism never took permanent root. In Switzerland, England, France, and Holland the revolt against the Medieval Church produced discord, wars, and profound changes, which must be understood in order to follow the later development of these countries.

We turn first to Switzerland, lying in the midst of the great chain of the Alps which extends from the Mediterranean to Vienna. During the Middle Ages the region destined to be included in the Swiss Confederation formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire and was scarcely distinguishable from the rest of southern Germany. As early as the thirteenth century the three "forest" cantons on the shores of the winding lake of Lucerne formed a union to protect their liberties against the encroachments of their neighbors, the Hapsburgs. It was about this tiny nucleus that Switzerland, gradually consolidated. Lucerne and the free towns of Zurich and Berne soon joined the Swiss league. By brave fighting the Swiss were able to frustrate the renewed efforts of the Hapsburgs to subjugate them.

Various districts in the neighborhood joined the Swiss union in succession, and even the region lying on the Italian slopes of the Alps was brought under its control. Gradually the bonds between the members of the union and the Empire were broken.

In 1499 they were finally freed from the jurisdiction of the emperor and Switzerland became a practically independent country. Although the original union had been made up of German-speaking people, considerable districts had been annexed in which Italian or French was spoken. The Swiss did not, therefore, form a compact, well-defined nation, and consequently for some centuries their confederation was weak and ill-organized.


In Switzerland the first leader of the revolt against the Church was a young priest named Zwingli, who was a year younger than Luther. He lived in the famous monastery of Einsiedeln, near the Lake of Zurich, which was the center of pilgrimages on account of a wonder-working image. "Here", he says, "I began to preach the Gospel of Christ in the year 1516, before any one in my locality had so much as heard the name of Luther".

Three years later he was called to an influential position as preacher in the cathedral of Zurich, and there his great work really commenced. He then began to denounce the abuses in the Church as well as the shameless traffic in soldiers, which he had long regarded as a blot upon his country's honor.

But the original cantons about the Lake of Lucerne, which feared that they might lose the great influence that, in spite of their small size, they had hitherto enjoyed, were ready to fight for the old faith. The first armed collision between the Swiss Protestants and Catholics took place at Kappel in 1531, and Zwmgtf fell in the battle. The various cantons and towns never came to an agreement in religious matters, and Switzerland is still part Catholic and part Protestant.


Switzerland had made a business, ever since the time when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, of supplying troops of mercenaries to fight for other countries, especially for France and the pope, and Swiss guards may still be seen in the pope's palace.

The Cairo Geniza

The Cairo Geniza: a collection of documents (wills, business partnership documents, charity lists) related to the Jewish community of 10th-13th-century Cairo. These documents present a rare window onto the public and private history of non-elites (including marriage contracts, personal letters between family members, trousseau lists). They also represent a rare instance of documentary collections in the pre-Ottoman Middle East. These documents are mostly in Judeo-Arabic—Arabic (including some colloquial) spelled out in Hebrew script. You will learn the Hebrew script, as well as some basic paleography skills useful in reading Geniza texts, and will use the online Geniza browser to search the collection of almost 4000 edited documents.

In fact a wealth of medieval sources points to the undeniable presence of written documents, archives, and the traces of both in the region and their importance during the Middle Ages. One cache of documents - petitions and decrees from the archives of the caliphs and sultans who ruled from Cairo between 969 and 1517 - survived in an unlikely place: the lumber-room of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat (Old Cairo), known as the Cairo Geniza. Among hundreds of thousands of documents in Hebrew script, the Geniza also preserved scores of Arabic chancery documents, many of which bear no obvious evidence of a connection to the Jewish community. Some of them are now housed in the David Kauffmann collection of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest.

I read informative book about (Cairo Geniza) for PAUL E. KAHLE. This reference was published in 1959 in New York. KAHLE said about his book: "THE original form of my book on the Cairo Geniza was in substance delivered as the British Academy Schweich Lectures for 1941". This book available in under title "The Cairo Geniza".

Hospitalers and Templars

A noteworthy outcome of the "crusading movement was the foundation of several curious orders, of which the Hospitalers and the Templars were the most important. These orders combined the two dominant interests of the time, those of the monk and of the soldier. They permitted a man to be both at once; the knight might wear a monkish cowl over his coat of armor.


(The Hospitaler here represented bears the peculiar Maltese cross on his bosom. His crucifix indicates his religious character, but his sword and the armor, which he wears beneath his long gown, enabled him to fight as well as pray and succor the wounded.)

The Hospitalers grew out of a monastic association that was formed before the First Crusade for the succor of the poor and sick among the pilgrims. Later the society admitted noble knights to its membership and became a military order, at the same time continuing its care for the sick. This charitable association, like the earlier monasteries, received generous gifts of land in Western Europe and built and controlled many fortified monasteries in the Holy Land itself. After the evacuation of Syria in the thirteenth century, the Hospitalers moved their headquarters to the island of Rhodes, and later to Malta. The order still exists, and it is considered a distinction to this day to have the privilege of wearing its emblem, the cross of Malta.

Before the Hospitalers were transformed into a military order, a little group of French knights banded together in 1119 to defend pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem from the attacks of the infidel. They were assigned quarters in the king's palace at Jerusalem, on the site of the former Temple of Solomon; hence the name “Templars”, which they were destined to render famous. The Church enthusiastically approved the “poor soldiers of the Temple”. They wore a white cloak adorned with a red cross, and were under a very strict monastic rule which bound them by the vows of obedience, poverty, and celibacy. The fame of the order spread throughout Europe, and the most exalted, even dukes and princes, were ready to renounce the world and serve Christ under its black and white banner, with the legend Non nobis, Domine.

The order was aristocratic from the first, and it soon became incredibly rich and independent. It had its collectors in all parts of Europe, who dispatched the “alms” they received to the Grand Master at Jerusalem. Towns, churches, and estates were given to the order, as well as vast sums of money. The king of Aragon proposed to bestow upon it a third of his kingdom. The pope showered privileges upon the Templars. They were exempted from tithes and taxes and were brought under his immediate jurisdiction; they were released from feudal obligations, and bishops were forbidden to excommunicate them for any cause.

No wonder they grew insolent and aroused the jealousy and hate of princes and prelates alike. Even Innocent III violently upbraided them for admitting to their order wicked men who then enjoyed all the privileges of churchmen. Early in the fourteenth century, through the combined efforts of the pope and Philip the Fair of France, the order was brought to a terrible end. Its members were accused of the most abominable practices, such as heresy, the worship of idols, and the systematic insulting of Christ and his religion. Many distinguished Templars were burned for heresy; others perished miserably in dungeons. The once powerful order was abolished and its property confiscated.